Friday, December 14, 2018
'Course Note on Organizational Behaviour Essay\r'
' description OF ORGANISATION\r\nAccording to Gary Johns, Ã¢â¬Å"Organisations argon social inventions for accomplishing goals by means of sort effortsÃ¢â¬Â. This rendering covers wide variety-of conventions much(prenominal) as businesses, schools, hospitals, fraternal conventions, religious bodies, government agencies and so on. thither argon three signifi stubt aspects in the in a higher guide definition, which require further synopsis. They are as follows: neighborly Inventions: The word Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬Â as a derivative of society fundamental altogethery means gathering of mass. It is the passel that primarily direct up an disposal. Accomplishing Goals: All governings dumbfound reasons for their existence. These reasons are the goals towards which tout ensemble validational efforts are directed.\r\nWhile the primary(a) goal .of either commercial organisation is to make m oney for its give birthers, this goal is inter-related with many an separate(p renominal)(a) goals. Accordingly, any organisational goal essential integrate in itself the face-to-face goals of all privateistics associated with the organisation. Group Effort: lot, 2 as members of the society at large and as a spot of an organisation interact with each other and are inter-dependent. Individuals in themselves suck in physical and reason limitations and these limitations raft only be overcome by throng efforts.\r\nMEANING AND DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR\r\nOrganisational demeanor is concerned with dealÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions in range up a motion. Understanding an various(prenominal) deportment is in itself a challenge, except watching pigeonholing conduct in an organisational environment is a massive managerial task.\r\nAs Nadler and Tushman put it, Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding one single(a)Ã¢â¬â¢s deportment is challenging in and of itself; infrastanding a assemblage that is made up of contrastive item-b y-items and comprehending the many consanguinitys among those individuals is even more(prenominal) composite. Ultimately, the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s work gets done through hoi polloi, individually or collectively, on their, own or in collaboration with technology. Therefore, the counsel of organisational conduct is central to the management taskÃ¢â¬a task that involves the capacity to Ã¢â¬Å"understandÃ¢â¬Â the conduct patterns of individuals, conclaves and organisations, to Ã¢â¬ÂpredictÃ¢â¬Â what behavioral responses go away be fire by various managerial actions and finally to utilize this understanding and these predictions to get through Ã¢â¬Å" tellÃ¢â¬Â.\r\nOrganisational demeanor depose then be defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"The psychoanalyze of human race doings in organisational settings, the interface amongst human deportment and the organisational context, and the organisation itself.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nThe above definition has three partsÃ¢â¬the individual behavi our, the organisation and the (interface between the two. Each individual brings to an organisation a quaint set of beliefs, values, attitudes and other psycheal characteristics and these characteristics of all individuals must interact with each other in align to realize organisational settings. The organisational behaviour is specifically concerned with work-related behaviour, which takes place in organisations.\r\nIn addition to understanding; the on-going behavioural processes involved, in Ã¢â¬Ëtheir own jobs, managers must understand the basic human element of their work. Organisational behaviour offers three study ways of understanding this context; large number as organisations, people as resources and people as people.\r\n above all, organisations are people; and without people there would be no organisations. Thus, if managers are to understand the organisations in which they work, they must first understand the people who make up the organisations.\r\nAs resources , people are one of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable assets. People create the organisation, guide and direct its blood line, and vitalise and revitalise it. People make the decisions, gain the problems, and answer the questions. As managers progressively recognise the value of potential contributions by their employees, it will become more and more important for managers and employees to poke the complexities of organisational behaviour.\r\nFinally, there is people as people Ã¢â¬ an principle derived from the simple notion of humanistic management. People overtake a large part of their lives in; organisational settings, by and large as employees. They have a right to convey something in return beyond wages and benefits. They have a right to expect satisfaction and to run across new skills. An understanding of organisational behaviour can suspensor the manager better appreciate the variety of individual needs andÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations.\r\nOrganisational behaviour is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation; the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself; Ã¢â¬Ëand the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the anatomical structure of the organisation. One cannot understand an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour completely without learning something about that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s organisation. Similarly, he cannot understand how the organisation operates without; studying the people who-make it up. Thus, the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals.\r\nELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR\r\nThe key elements in the organisational behaviour are people,, structure, technology and the environment in which the organisation operates. People: People make up the internal and social system of the organisation. They consist of individuals and groups. The groups whitethorn be big or small; orchis o r informal; official or unofficial. Groups are dynamic and they work in the organisation to achieve their objectives. Structure: Structure defines the formal relationships of the people in organisations. Different people in the organisation are performing different type of jobs and they need to be (elated in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated.\r\nengineering: Technology such as machines and work processes propose the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. It allows people to do more and work better but it also restrictsÃ¢â¬â¢ people in various ways. environs: All organisations operate within an external environment. It is the part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government, family and other organisations. All of these in return influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people.\r\nNATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR\r\nEach individual brings to an organisation a unique set of personal characteristics, experiences from other organisation, the environment surrounding the organisation and1 they also possess a personal background. In considering the people working in an organisation, organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting.\r\nBut individuals do not work in isolation. They come in dawn with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. Points of contact include managers, co-workers, formal policies and procedures of the organisation, and various changes implemented by the organisation. Over time, the individual, too, changes, as a function of both the personal experiences and the organisation. The organisation is also affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. Clearly, the study of organisational behaviour must consider the ways in which the indivi dual and the organisation interact.\r\nAn organisation, characteristically, exists before a especial(a) person joins it and continues to exist after he leaves it. Thus, the organisation itself represents a crucial third perspective from which to view organisational behaviour.\r\n rent FOR STUDYING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR\r\nThe rules of work are different from the rules of play. The uniqueness of rules and the environment of organisations forces managers to study organisational behaviour in order to learn about normal and deviate ranges of behaviour.\r\nMore specifically, organisational behaviour serves three purposes:\r\nWhat causes behaviour?\r\n wherefore particular antecedents cause behaviour?\r\nWhich antecedents of behaviour can be controlled directly and which are beyond control?\r\nA more specific and formal course in organisational behaviour helps an individual to develop more refined and workable sets of assumption that is directly applicable to his work interactions. Organisational behaviour helps in predicting human behaviour in the organisational setting by drawing a clear distinction between individual behaviour and group behaviour.\r\nOrganisational behaviour does not provide solutions to all complex and different behaviour puzzles of organisations. It is only the smart as a whip judgement of the manager in dealing with a specific issue that can try to solve the problem. Organisational behaviour only assists in making judgements that are derived from tenable assumptions; judgement that takes into account the important variables fundamental the situation; judgement that are assigned overdue recognition to the complexity of individual or group behaviour; judgement that explicitly takes into account the managers own goals, motives, hang-ups, blind spots and weaknesses.\r\nIMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR\r\nOrganisational behaviour offers several ideas to management as to how human cistron should be properly emphasised to achieve orga nisational objectives. Barnard has find that an organisation is a conscious interaction of two or more people. This suggests that since an organisation is Ihe interaction of persons, they should be given adequate importance in managing the organisation. Organisational behaviour provides opportunity to management to analyse human behaviour and prescribe means for shaping it to a particular direction.\r\nUnderstanding Human Behaviour Organisational behaviour provides underÃÂstanding the human behaviour in all directions in which the human beings interact. Thus, organisational behaviour can be understood at the individual level, social level, group level and inter-group level.\r\nOrganisational behaviour helps to analyse Ã¢â¬ËwhyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢ an individual behaves in a particular way. Human behaviour is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a large number of factors including the psychological, social and cultural implications. Organisational behaviour integra tes these factors to provide* simplicity in understanding the human behaviour.\r\nInterpersonal Level: Human behaviour can be understood at the level of interpersonal interaction. Organisational behaviour provides Ã¢â¬Â¢ means for understanding the interpersonal relationships in an organisation. Analysis of reciprocal relationships, role analysis and transactional analysis are some of the common methods, which provide such understanding. Group Level: Though people depict anything at their individual level, they are often modified by group pressures, which then become a force in shaping human behaviour, Thus, individuals should be studied in groups also..\r\nResearch in group dynamics has contributed vitally to organisational behaviour and shows how a group behaves in its norms, cohesion, goals, procedures, communication pattern and leadership. These research results are advancing managerial knowledge of understanding group behaviour, which is very important for organisational mor ale and productivity. Inter-group Level: The organisation is made up of many groups that develop complex relationships to build their process and substance. Understanding the effect of group relationships is important for managers in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organisation. Inter-group relationship may be in the form of co-operation or competition.\r\n'