Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Response on Quote from “The Waiting Years” by Fumiko Enchi Essay

In Chapter 1, of â€Å"The First Bloom† of the book â€Å"The Waiting Years† by author Fumiko Enchi, (Fumiko, 2002) it was easy to identify the little girl as one who was so important amid the small pace of the town. Suga was going to dance †Plum Blossom in Spring† where all eyes would be on her.   She was going to be looked at and judged according to her dance that day, in her mind,   which set the atmosphere for tension and apprehension of what they would think about her recital and about Suga.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Suga seemed so innocent and she always maintained her respectful nature as she did as she walked toward the school teacher’s house and you could sense that this dance was going to be very important to Suga.   She remained respectable, as you think about her life with an impoverished family in a world of young girls who were selected as future bride’s.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The setting in this piece of work was magnificent as I imagined the tiny house in this poor community.   The stage in the teacher’s house must have been so magical for Suga and for the other little girl who was already dancing when she arrived.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I feel sorry for Suga as I understand that she and every other girl is always being looked at but for the recital, I think this is one time when she really does want to be noticed and for something other than being a girl who will be chosen for other things in life besides her dancing. I think that this quote offers a good look into the life of Suga and gives a vivid description of her life and surroundings. Enchi, Fumiko, (2002) The Waiting Years, Oxford University Press, p.24

Contemporary to Social Work Essay

Taking into consideration all the material received regarding the Benjamin family, I have chosen to make use of the think child, think parent and think family approach in analysing the material. This method identifies what changes are required to improve service planning, delivery and practice and this will assist to improve the wellbeing and life chances of families affected by parental health. This essay will examine all the material provided focusing particularly on Daniel and Emma Watson. However, an examination of the Benjamin’s family will be performed in view of developing a modality on how to provide support to them. This essay is aimed at making preparation for assessment, taking into account individual needs, culture, diversity, and available resources that will enable me to provide support for everyone especially Daniel. Firstly, the essay will look at the Law that governs adoption processes, Daniels wishes and what needs to transpire to improve his quality of life. Secondly, I will also look at the Benjamin family and their proposal to adopt Daniel. In addition to this, I will examine Emma Watson and try to find out how I can facilitate her need to get her son back and what can be done to overcome barriers she may encounter, and finally I will offer a summary of the essay. In order for me to begin to think about the assessment process, my main duty would be to find out what the law declares. As put forward by Brammer (2003), Adoption Order may not be made unless the parent’s consents to the Adoption Order under Children Act 1989 S.20, or their consent should be dispensed and the child has been placed for adoption by an adoption agency with the prospective adopters in whose favour the order is proposed to be made. A parent is the mother or married father or father with parental responsibility, and not the unmarried father without parental responsibility. Steps are made to contact the unmarried father of a child and counsel him and seek hi s views on adoption even though he does not have to give his consent. The court or adoption agency must have regard to the following matters (the list is not intended to be exhaustive nor in any order of priority) Children Act 1989 S. 1(4) a) The child’s ascertainable wishes and feelings regarding the decision (considered in the light of the child’s age and understanding). The guidance to this Act reinforces this aspect of the checklist stating; â€Å"it is essential that an adoption agency, in so far as reasonably practicable , involves and consults the child at all stages of the adoption process, ascertaining and taking into account his views in a way which is sensitive to, and consistent with his age and understanding† (para.13). b) The child’s particular needs; This factor includes the child’s physical, emotional and educational need as expressed in the checklist and is likely to extend to other needs including social psychological and health. c) The likely effect on the child (throughout his life) of having cease d to be a member of the original family and to become an adopted person, in addition to this statement The United Nation Convention on the Rights if the Child states that it is the fundamental right of every child to belong to a family and Article. 8 of the ECHR the right to respect family life. As with the welfare principle, the court must consider the effects on the child throughout his life. d) The child’s age, sex, background and any of the Child’s characteristics which the court or agency considers relevant. e) Any harm (within the means of Children Act 1989) that the child has suffered or is at risk of suffering. This refers to any harm and not just significant harm The relationship which the child has with relative and with any other person in relation to whom the court or agency considers the relationship to be relevant, including (i) the likelihood of any such relationship continuing and the value to the child of doing so, (ii) the ability and willingness of any of the child’s relatives, or of any such person to provide the child with a secure environment in which the child can develop, and otherwise to meet the child’s needs, (iii) the wishes and feelings of any of the child’s relatives, or of any such person regarding the child. This factor is one of the provisions in the Act that calls on the courts to consider contact. (S.1 (8) (a) allows the views of other important people in the child’s life to be taken into account such as foster and it also includes the child’s birth parents. Moreover, the delay principle is drawn from the Children Act. Section 1 (3) the court or adoption agency must at all times bear in mind that, in general, any delay in coming to the decision is likely to prejudice the child’s welfare. The court draws up a timetable for the avoidance of delay. The Public Outline also has an impact on the overall timescale for a child between care proceedings and final placement. In addition to this Section 1(5) states that in placing the child for adoption the agency must give due consideration to the child’s religious persuasion, racial origin and cultural and linguistic background. The guidance in a circular â€Å"Adoption – Achieving the right balance† re cognised the importance of a child’s ethnic origin, culture and religion as significant factors to be accounted for; noting that placement with a family of similar ethnic origin is most likely to meet the child’s needs as fully as possible†. Adoptions takes a while to process and this allows the Multi-disciplinary agencies time to prepare the family and especially give Emma the support she requires if she is still interested in having Daniel back or not. Studies indicate that when the child is placed for adoption birth parents face bereavement as they face losing their child for good even if it is the child’s best interest. On-going contact help alleviate some of their anguish and bringing them benefits such as reassurance that the child is alright, making the loss of their child easier to accept, helping them to feel more positively about the adoptive parents and seeing a positive role for themselves in their child’s future. Coulshed and Orme (2006) define assessment as â€Å"an on-going process in which the service user participates, the purpose of which is to understand people in relation to their environment; it is the basis for planning what needs to be done to maintain, improve and bring about change †. The five stages of assessment process involve Preparation, data collection, examining the data, data analysis and acting on outcomes of the data analysis. Bell et al (2007) and White (2009) state that a good assessment ensures that the child remains at the heart of the assessment, contains full, brief, significant and precise data, makes good use of information from a range of sources, includes a family and social history and includes a clear analysis. Here I am now examining the data. In the correspondence, it appears that the Benjamin family want to adopt Daniel, whilst both Mr and Mrs Benjamin may be a little old to adopt Daniel; they might be an exception as Daniel is already in their care and he appears to fit in well with the family. One of the Benjamin’s roles in Daniels life is to help him maintain attachment with his mother. They must also help the child to develop healthy and strong new attachments with themselves and then transfer those attachments to the permanent caretakers of Daniel who may be either Emma or adoptive parents. Barbara has good support network in the family, which includes Naseem who has worked as a Social Work assistant and has had good background of meeting the needs of ethnic minority children. Barbara is already an expert in caring for Daniel in the documentation I received it appears she responds to his behaviour and deals with his need on a daily basis. However, I have to carry out an assessment on attachment to determine whether it is advisable that they have such strong bonds as suggested by document A1 received 09.01.12. When assessing attachment between Daniel and the Benjamin family, I would look at Daniel and his environment. I would observe his developmental functions and take note of the behaviour he displays in the home and how he responds to the family. As I observe, I need to look at the interactions with the adults and observe whether Daniel appears relaxed or not. Observing the Benjamin family includes how they react to the Daniels advances; the interactions that they ini tiate with him, disciplinary techniques used in the home and the family’s awareness of Daniel as a separate individual who has needs of his own and not relating all of his behaviour to their needs. Furthermore, I would observe whether Daniel engages in age appropriate activities and is able to express frustration or not. I would be interested in knowing whether Daniel responds appropriately to being apart from Barbra and how he responds upon her return. In addition to this, I would need to know if the environment provides adequate stimulation and safety measures appropriate to Daniel’s age and stage of development. If the case is that Daniel is not receiving support he will become disconcerted, insecure and without self-esteem. Fahlberg (1988), suggested that toddlers aged two should be able to use words like â€Å"me† and â€Å"mine†, point consistently to body parts, combine two to three words, name pictures of common object and follow simple direction. However, Daniel suffers from cytomegalovirus and because of this, his developing is slow and he will need extra care and time for caregivers to meet his needs. It is important that Emma is educated on what it is and what kind of responsibilities is attached to caring for Daniel for a lifetime. According to The National Health Service UK, Cytomegalovirus also known as CMV is part of the herpes virus. CMV is part of the human to human transmissible through close bodily contact. Coughs and sneezes are also possible routes of transmission. There is no current cure for CMV infection however medication can help people with weak immune system; in Daniels case, he was born with what could be medically termed as congenital CMV, children born with it show no signs or symptoms although some eventually develop hearing loss like Daniel. Some of the symptoms these children have are treatable but the children may develop hearing loss and one or more disabilities during the course of their lives. These symptoms may include seizures, problems with physical co-ordination, deafness cognitive difficulties and many more. Fahlberg (1988) propose that Caregivers who understand developmental issues are less likely to be as upset by normal behaviour and more likely to support the child as he struggles with the basic tasks at each stage. They are more readily able to perceive what a child needs to help him grow. Emma Watson made a phone call to Social Services recently. In the conversation, she stated that she wanted her son Daniel, back. Daniel has been in a foster placement with the Benjamin Family. The Benjamin’s would like to adopt him and it appears that Daniel has settled well with the family. According to Rutter, (1989) and Black, (2000), research shows that children end up doing badly when an attachment bonds are disturbed. They suggested that children are to be moved when it is inevitable, in situations such as, when parents die or when they are being placed away from an abusive home they continue and state that it is unjustifiable to move a child from a safe foster home. Bowbly (1951) advised that a child should receive the continuous care of a single most important attachment figure for approximately the first two years of his life. He claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and if the attachment figure is broken, during the critical two year period the child will suffer irreversible long term consequences of this loss of the care giver as well as failure to develop an attachment. For Daniel this means that if his bond with the Benjamin’s is disrupted, he will almost fail to thrive in his new environment as he had already formed his attachment with the family. In relation to the phone call made by Emma, I would like to explore further and find out whether Emma has any knowledge on parenting and what she thinks a family entails, I would like to know what Emma knows about Daniels disability and needs. I would investigate on what she knows about Cytomegalovirus and if it results that she is unaware, I would help her expand her learning – build and share library resources, encourage her to be involved with parents groups to access support and community resources and if she wishes, I would look at finding her additional support such as an advocate. An advocate will help to increase resilience and self-efficacy. In addition to this, I would investigate on why she has come to the decision of wanting him back. I would be interested in knowing whether there is any communication between Emma and Daniels father, including people in Emma’s life. I would find out whether they are aware of Daniel and that, he is of the Asian race and I would explore on whether the people in Emma’s life would be able to appreciate Daniels uniqueness, and discretely examine on whether they are aware of his learning disability. I will also be interested in Emma’s living condition, environment, financial situation and lifestyle up to date, if these are not up to standard, attempt to help her have a secure base. Turney et al., (2007), states that an assessment needs careful consideration of the inter-relationship concerning the good and the bad influences in a child’s life i.e. the risk factors that are possible to impact on the child’s health and growth as well as the protective factors. Both Macdonald and Williamson (2002) and Preston-Shoot (2003), suggest that the Assessment Framework for Children in Need and their families demands that each child needs are assessed as well as the aptitude of the parents and the impac t of family and environmental influences on each child’s growth and on the parents capacity to meet the child’s needs. Bell et al., (2007) and Mitchell and Sloper, (2008) advises that assessments of disabled children may involve tailoring of the recording templates to reveal their individual strength, capability and needs and to capture their involvement to the assessment process through their preferred method of communication, this implies that a person is an expert in their own experience. Holland (2010) and Thomas and Holland (2010) put forward that the knowledge of child development is important for good assessment outcomes. Selwyn et al, (2006) and Ward et al., (2010) identified problems while carrying out an assessment on attachment, they claimed that clingy behaviour was misinterpreted as evidence of strong attachment moreover some assessments were based on observation of a few circumstances to be consistent. Jones (2009) and Reder et al., (2003) state that assessment of parents includes capacity to meet the child’s needs and the importance of understanding the basic requirements of par enting and taking into consideration the parent’s ability to change. Moreover Farmer et al., (2008) and Harwin et al., (2003), recommend that psychological assessments are valuable when assessing parenting capacity. It was also their suggestion that one way of testing parental capacity to change parenting behaviour and to give them managed opportunities to change. This is achieved by giving the parents clear objectives of what needs to change and informing them on how this will be assessed, monitored and the time scale required completing the task. Forrester and Harwin, (2008) and Harwin (2009), also propose that motivational interviewing techniques are useful in addressing readiness to change in situations of alcohol or drug misuse. This shifts the decision to change to Emma allowing her to discover her own strength and hidden motivation. According to Farmer et al., (2008) and Harwin and Forrester (2002) the role of fathers and men in the household needs to be examined and Social Workers need to ensure that information about fathers is available whenever possible, as fathers may exert a considerable influence even when they are to living with the child. In addition to this, Social Workers need to take account of the impact of factors related to family functioning and family history. Assessing family functioning provides a basis for a strength-based approach that’s accepts that all adults and children possess the power that can be comprehensive to improve the quality of their lives. Mental Capacity Act S. 1(3) states that, an adult does not lack capacity to make any specific decision unless all practicable steps have been taken to aid him or her to make the decision. Laird, (2010) advises that a vulnerable adult may require advocacy support or communication communicated in other form to be able to participate in decision-making. This relates to the GSCC Code 3.1 â€Å"promoting the independence of service-users and assisting them to understand and exercise their rights. Therefore, Assessment of parental capacity depends on communication. Improving the assessment requires different approach when collecting information; these approaches may include observation, assessing changes in parenting practises, use of validated tools and consideration of previous reports regarding the child and family. Assessment involves gathering of all sort of documented information and records from a range of sources this include medical history, social and developmental history. Consent is sort and confidentiality adhered too. To conduct my assessment successfully, as well as working with Daniel, Emma Watson and the Benjamin family I will be looking at liaising with a multi-disciplinary team, which would involve Social Services, general Doctor and the one who is trained in cytomegalovirus, Occupational therapist, Speech therapist and a mental health worker. These people will assist me to add data to my assessment and contribute to making informed decisions about Daniels future needs. In summary, I would give Emma a chance to prove that she can be a good parent. I will offer her support, information and guidance to what needs to take place, and set targets. I believe that she might not realise the impact of uprooting her son until she is made fully aware of Daniel’s disability needs. In my assessment, I have to prioritise Daniel’s best interest and now, it appears this lies with the Benjamin family who give the impression that they are a dedicated family. Prior to this, Daniel has thrived in t heir care. References 1. Brammer, A., (2010) Social Work Law, 3rd Ed, Harlow: Pearson Education. 2. Bell, M., Shaw. I., Sinclair. I., Sloper. P., and Rafferty, J., (2007) An Evaluation of the Practice, Process and Consequences of the ICS in Councils with Social Services Responsibilities. Report to Department for Education and Skills Welsh Assembly Government. 3. Coulshed, V & Orme, J., (2006) – Social Work Practice, 4th edition, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan 4. Department for Health (2005) The Mental Capacity Act. London HMSO 5. Farmer, E., Sturgess, W. and O’Neill, T., (2008) The reunification of Looked After Children With Their Parents: Patterns interventions and outcomes. Report to the Department for Children, Schools and Policy Studies, University of Bristol 6. Fahlberg, V., (1988) Fitting the pieces together. London: British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering. 7. Forrester, D. and Harwin, J., (2008) Parental substance misuse and child welfare: outcomes for children two years after refe rral. British Journal of Social Work, 38: 1518-1535 8. General Social Care Council (2002) Code of practice for social care workers and code of practice for employers. London: General Social Care Council 9. Harwin, J., Owen, M., Locke, R. and Forrester, D., (2003) Making Care Orders Work: A Study of Care Plans and their implementation. London: The Stationery Office. 10. Holland, S., (2010) Child and Family Assessment in Social Work Practice, 2nd Ed. London: Sage Publications. 11. (assessed on 17.04.2012) 12. (assessed on 02.05.2012) 13. (assessed on 17.04.2012) 14. Jones, DPH., (2009) Assessment of parenting. In Jan Horwath (ed.), The Child’s World: The comprehensive guide to assessing children in need. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 2nd Edition. 15. Llaird, S.D., (2010) Practical Social Work Law: Analysing Court Cases and Inquiries, Harlow: Pearson Education 16. Macdonald, G. and Williamson, E., (2002) Against the Odds: An Evaluation of Child and Family Support Services. London: National Children’s Bureau/ Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 17. Mitchell, W and Sloper, P., (2008) The Integrated Children’s System and disabled children. Child and Family Social Worker, 13 (3): 274-285 18. Preston- Shoot, M. (2003) A matter of re cords? Practice, 15(3): 31-50 19. Reder, P., Duncan, S. and Lucey, C., (2003) Studies in the Assessment of Parenting. London: Routledge. 20. Selwyn. J., Quinton, D., Sturgess, W and Baxter, C., (2006) Costs and Outcomes of Non- infant Adoptions. London: BAAF.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Nietzsche and “The Problem of Socrates”

Without a doubt, Nietzsche was one of the great thinkers of his time.   He showed great insight into some of the social ills that existed at his time and sought to find ways in which to correct them.   Like Marx, Nietzsche believed that, to some extent, the root of many social ills came from the division between the classes and with the decadence of those with wealth.   In the case of the â€Å"problem† of Socrates, Nietzsche moves somewhat beyond the typical Marxist argument and questioned the wisdom of Socrates in other ways.   Although Nietzsche drew extensively from ancient texts to support his arguments about Socrates, the conclusions to which he came were completely modern in their nature. For his first argument, Nietzsche states that all sages have concluded that life is devoid of positive meaning (Nietzsche par. 1).   To support this argument, he cites Socrates’ conclusion that life equals sickness.   Socrates, Nietzsche argues, was not just tired of life himself; rather, his decadence was the symptom of a decline in society himself.   Not only was Socrates a â€Å"great erotic† (Nietzsche par. 8), but he was also an indication of how society itself was decadent. Nietzsche goes on to argue that Socrates was not a wise man at all.   Although it is usual to admire Socrates for his deeply analytical mind, Nietzsche argues that it is the philosopher’s overindulgence in this particular virtue that makes him decadent to begin with.   In fact, Nietzsche argues that Socrates was truly the opposite of everything that he was purported to be, and might not even be Greek at all.   To support these arguments, Nietzsche relies not only the texts that come from the time at which Socrates lived, but also on the writings of scientists, the â€Å"anthropological criminologists,† who argue that criminals are typically ugly people. In the eyes of Nietzsche, it appears that Socrates is not what he appears at first blush at all.   It is well known that Socrates came from the plebian class, but Nietzsche also argues against his ugliness, which appears in both writings on and sculptures of Socrates.   If Socrates was ugly and conventional wisdom at the time during which Nietzsche lived was that criminals are ugly, is it not possible to argue that Socrates was not a great man, but, rather, a criminal? And, because criminals are typically decadent, it is not possible to support, at least by arguments of the times, the statement that Socrates was decadent as well?   If these things are true, then Nietzsche can feel justified in arguing that Socrates was not a great man and that all of the philosophers that followed him through the leadership of Plato were also symptomatic of all that was wrong with Socrates and with his form of reasoning. Where Socrates fails, in the mind of Nietzsche, is in his overwhelming need for and reliance upon reasoning.   Prior to Socrates, Nietzsche points out, argumentation in polite society did not exist in polite society.   In fact, Nietzsche argues, the argumentation that Socrates relied upon was the vanquishing of â€Å"a noble taste† in which people did not live solely by reason, but through personal responsibility and personal morality, through instincts, rather than reason. It is through the writings that come down to this age, in which Socrates is depicted as an ugly man that is ruled solely by reason, that Nietzsche is able to draw his very modern conclusion: man without instincts is a diseased creature who has no desire to live.   Using this argument, Socrates did not bravely face his execution; instead, he wanted to die because he was not true to his instinctive human nature and, thus, had become infected with the decadence brought about by his over-reliance on logic, reason, and morality imposed from an exterior source. All of Nietzsche’s reasoning, of course, is based on his own desires to support his own arguments.   It is not difficult to trace a decline in Greek society over the centuries, but whether this decline is directly correlated with the reason imposed by Socrates and later by Plato it is impossible to say.   Rather, it appears that Nietzsche is making the argument to support his belief that human beings are instinctive creatures that are best when they are overflowing the restrictions imposed by society. Socrates’ form of reasoning, Nietzsche argued, was a last resort of a failing society.   This Socratic reasoning did not so much remove decadence from society as it did simply change that decadence into another form. The removal of instinct from society’s grasp and, in fact, the actual opposition that society had to the instinctive nature of humanity, was the cause of the disease that Socrates personified–at least in Nietzsche’s opinion. At the time that the ancients were writing in praise of Socrates, it was to their benefit to do so.   A new form of society was coming into being and Socrates was the forerunner of the kind of citizen that would populate it.   If Socrates was denigrated in writings during the time at which he lived, it was not because he was decadent or ugly, but because he challenged the society in which he lived. Nietzsche, however, chose to interpret the writings that he studied as proof that Greek society was in decline due to the rise of reason over instinct, which would thus support his argument that the ills and decadence of modern society sprang from the morals and reason that were being imposed upon the world.   In a very real sense, it can be argued that Nietzsche skewed the historical writings he studied to support his modern philosophical statements. Nietzsche argues that as long as reason and external morality is imposed upon society, the people who live within it are diseased and devoid of reasons to live.   He indicates that all of the sages throughout the ages have come to this conclusion, including Socrates, who came to such a conclusion about his own right.   Nietzsche came to very different conclusions than those that were reached by the people upon whose texts he based his reasoning because of his imposing modern values upon the writings of these ancient texts.   By using his own reasoning and the reasoning suggested by then-modern scientists, Nietzsche supported his own agenda that argued against reason and for instinctive humanity. Work Cited Nietzsche, F.   â€Å"The Problem of Socrates.†Ã‚   18 Dec 2007. .

Monday, July 29, 2019

Communication 380 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Communication 380 - Coursework Example What is the pattern of the pronunciation variation? The pattern of the variation is in the chorus line. The first two times the group uses the phrase â€Å"stick witch you†, whereas in the third usage in the chorus it is â€Å"with you†. 2. What is the effect of such deliberate dialect code switching on you personally? I would not have noticed it if it had not been pointed out to me, and since it has been, I find it irritating and annoying. 3. Do you think that other people listening to the song will react differently to it than you? Yes, I do think that others will react differently. As with most popular song lyrics, unless a word or phrase used garners an emotional reaction, it goes unnoticed. 4. Do you think this song is aimed for a male or female audience? I think that this song is aimed more towards a female audience, since people have a strong tendency to notice chorus lines that â€Å"speak† to them. In turn, this initiates an emotional reaction, which the n starts the person’s thought processes about someone in their life. 5. Why does she vary her pronunciation? She varies her pronunciation because of the rhythm of the song itself. In the first two instances of using â€Å"stick witch you†, the beat of the music is slightly faster than in the third instance, which is also the ending of the chorus line. 3 Part 3: Matching current words to their historical roots 1. Kingdom correlates to F. Anglo Saxon cyne, meaning â€Å"royal† 2. Toast (as in â€Å"to your health†) correlates to H. Scottish toss as in â€Å"toss a drink† 3. Wedlock correlates to E. Anglo Saxon wed, meaning â€Å"pledge or engagement† and lac, meaning â€Å"offering or giftâ€Å". 4. Fancy (as in imagination) correlates to G. French pensee, meaning â€Å"thought† 5. Cutlet correlates to A. Latin costa, meaning â€Å"rib† 6. Cockatoo correlates to B. Hindustani kakatua, a word imitative of its cry 7. Country Danc e correlates to D. French contre meaning â€Å"opposite† 8. Cold Slaw (or Cole Slaw) correlates to C. Dutch kool meaning â€Å"cabbage† and sla meaning â€Å"salad†. 4 Part 4: Misanalyses 1. Sick-as-hell anemia is â€Å"sickle cell anemia† 2. Old-timer’s disease is â€Å"Alzheimer’s disease† 3. Smiling Mighty Jesus is â€Å"spinal meningitis† 4. For all intensive purposes is â€Å"for all intents and purposes† 5. A blessing in the skies is â€Å"a blessing in disguise† 6. Spitting image is â€Å"splitting image† 5 Part 5: â€Å"Chat with A.L.I.C.E.† ( 1. Are A.L.I.C.E.’s responses semantically appropriate? The semantics of A.L.I.C.E.’s responses are determined by the use of language, and how they are worded to her. Oftentimes, they are not appropriate, i.e. she asked how I was doing, and I responded with â€Å"I am lovely†. Her response was if that â€Å"made me feel superior†. 2. Are they pragmatically appropriat

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Aquatic environmetal toxicology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Aquatic environmetal toxicology - Assignment Example It can be said that the method is effective as control of the environmental condition is made possible. Laboratory methods provide more sense of flexibility in terms of timing and it reduces workload and cost as well as seasonal and spatial variability (U.S. EPA 2000a). The use of laboratory test can enable one to formulate research question such as kinetics of acceptance and eradication, growth of the species or reproduction. This technique is also efficient as it is not subjected to assumptions like use of models. The approximate cost of this method is about $600; this is because of the tools that are required to perform this task. It is less expensive as it only requires a one day activity to gather the sediments and organisms. After collection of the samples for analysis the other part of activity is a one person activity. It is also possible to acquire some of the equipment below locally or improvising some such as dredgers or using your cell phone for GPS purposes, making the method cheaper. The clean water act has helped US navigable water to be protected from pollution by regulating the rate, amount and type of discharge of pollutants in the water bodies including the stream, rivers, coasts, wetlands and rivers. The act has significantly reduce the level of pollution from industrial and municipal For waters meant for swimming and fishing, the act was set to eliminate the disposal of untreated waste products with contaminated effluents from industrial and municipal plants. It required operators of such industries and businesses to apply for a permit to authorize their discharge into water bodies with a promise to reduce the discharge significantly over time. In 1998, the act was able to achieve 60 percentage of American clean waters thus they redirected their focus into eradicating nonpoint source water contaminants including agricultural runoff within chemicals or erosion of contaminated surfaces such as

Saturday, July 27, 2019

How has inflation adversely affected social security Term Paper

How has inflation adversely affected social security - Term Paper Example The fund raising mechanism of Social Security makes it a ‘pay-as-you-go’ system and can be termed as advance-funded. In simple words, funds to this program are contributed by the people who are presently working and are utilized for the benefit of the retirees. Ohlemacher (2010) states that Social Security is funded by a 6.2 percent payroll tax, paid by workers as well as employers. The Social Security corpus is being constantly used and is being replenished at the same time. Since inception, the Social Security program has done exceedingly well and has helped the country tide over many difficult situations. Till date, it remains one of the most successful and most popular programs in the United States which has touched the lives of millions of Americans. Vernon (2011) reveals that as of January 1, 2011, the Social Security trust fund stood at $2.6 trillion. At the end of 2010, close to 54 million people were beneficiaries of this program, while another 157 million peopl e had earnings covered by Social Security and paid payroll taxes. The outflow (expenditures) of the scheme stood at $713 billion while the total inflow (income) was $781 billion in 2010. Of this $664 billion was non-interest income while $117 billion was generated by way of interest. Inflation and Cost of Living Allowances There have been annual increases in Social Security benefits which try and counterbalance the adverse effects of inflation on fixed benefits. This indexing of Social Security benefits for inflation is of monumental importance because the absence of such indexing would result in the erosion of the purchasing power of the beneficiaries. Prices tend to rise over time and increase the cost of living. In such a scenario the beneficiaries would be able to purchase fewer goods and services unless the benefits rise in line with inflation. Known as Cost of Living Allowances (COLAs), these increases in Social Security benefits, based on the annual increase in consumer price s, have become an automatic annual feature of the program beginning 1975. Prior to that, such increases were accorded to the beneficiaries only when the Congress enacted a special legislation. The COLA adjustment is based on the change in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Work ­ers (CPI-W) over the last year. In periods of deflation where the CPI-W does not increase, no COLAs are announced. Change in Formula Recent reform proposals have called for changes in Social Security’s cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) formula. It has been proposed that a new ‘chained CPI’ be used instead of ‘CPI-W’ that is being used at present. The chained CPI would take into account ‘substitution purchases’ that consumers make to avoid high prices. Estimates reveal that the beneficiaries of Social Security would have to contend with smaller increases under the modified, chained CPI. Estimates reveal that the revised formula would res ult in a retiree receiving $560 less as benefits per year in the first decade. This loss in benefits would reach $984 in two decades from now. There is a section of the society that avers that the government should adopt an elderly-specific

Friday, July 26, 2019

Strategic and Change Management and HRM (NESTLE Company Assignment

Strategic and Change Management and HRM (NESTLE Company - Assignment Example For the marketing function to be successful, all the marketing aspects of the marketing function must be effectively executed and coordinated. The marketing mix elements include Product, Place, Price and Promotion. Product refers to the characteristics of the product and brands which is likely to give or deny the organization a competitive advantage. Price refers to the pricing regime and how it compares to the competition with regards to getting customers to purchase more. Place refers to the the distribution strategy. Channels of distribution must enable the organization to get its products to the target customers. Lastly, promotion refers to efforts by the organization to get customers to purchase more of its products. Such efforts include advertisements and other sales promotion efforts such as discounts and giving out coupons redeemable against company’s products among others efforts. Nestle brand portfolio is spread across almost every food and beverage portfolio, with consumers having a choice of different kinds of products and services. Some of the food and beverage categories covered by Nestle include baby foods, bottled water, cereals, chocolate and confectionery, dairy and frozen food. So wide and vast is Nestle UK & Ireland offering that it is estimated that about 97 per cent of UK households consume one or more of Nestle products such as Nescafe, Kit Kat, Buxton and Smarties, while about two billion of Nestle products are sold in the U.K every year (Nestle, 2014). This just shows how widespread usage the product enjoys. It is thus easy to see why Nestle is the most dominant brand in the food and wellness industry. Its expansive product lines mean that it is almost possible that someone at any given time will be having a choice between buying a Nestle product and that of the competition. Besides, the sales of Nestle products have been impressive with good profits being posted. The challenge the firm faces now is to

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Business enivronemnts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business enivronemnts - Essay Example External factors have the capacity to determine whether an organization adopts new technologies. In the IT company I worked for, one of the external factors that placed the company under pressure was the rival adoption of the technology. Notably, there is an increased competition between information technology companies. Since many of the companies operating in the same industry had not adopted the new technology, the company had to carry out a critical analysis of its potential benefits. Theorists have highlighted that it is easier to adopt a new technology when other companies in the industry have already adopted and implemented the technology. The reason for this emanates from the fact that when the first company adopts the technology, other companies can learn how to implement it and can discern the potential benefits. In addition, prices are likely to be lower. Organizations that choose to go fast in the adoption of new technology undergo experiential learning. This was the case with the IT company, which sought to adopt a new technology that competitor had not received. However, the competitors were not the only external factors. The company considered the social factors of the new technology. Worth noting is the fact that the information and technology sector presents numerous social impacts.

Meditation One and Two by Descartes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Meditation One and Two by Descartes - Essay Example In Meditation 1, he doubts his knowledge for the reason that he might be dreaming (Med1&2, n.p.). He tells of the danger of confusing dreams from reality especially because of the fact that we are very much convinced that whatever is happening in our dreams, no matter how far they are from reality is the truth. This is a very similar principle derived from the concept of the movie â€Å"Inception† which implies that the beginning of what a man will consider true is when he or she is fully awake. But the question is, how will you distinguish being awake in reality or being in a waking dream? Lastly, Descartes questions his knowledge because of the fact that evil is all around us, constantly causing us a slanted view of truth. That is why we all need to be governed by law and not rely on our morals and free will because with the influence of evil, we can have our own versions of the good and bad and rationalize them to fit our selfish interests. However, in Meditation 2, Descartes brings himself out of his doubts because of the fact that he is a being made up of not only of a body but also of a mind, therefore he is a thinking being. Though his concept of knowledge could be marred by the limitations of his senses, dreams, and the influence of evil, he still can go beyond all three because of his mind or his ability to think. In line with this, he claims that mind can be better known than the body for the reason that the body could be easily deformed, perished, or seeped out of its strength with the influence of evil or is just part of the man’s mortal nature but the mind is something that is strong enough to filter the knowledge that is not only based on senses but also derived with prudence.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Martin Luther's Reformation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Martin Luther's Reformation - Essay Example An ecclesiastical reformer, Luther was born in 1483 and baptized on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. He was sent to schools in Mansfeld, Magdeburg and Eisenach. After finishing his Master's degree in 1505 from the University of Erfurt, Luther enrolled in law school. He had to leave law school that same year, however, because he encountered a miracle of God during a thunderstorm. As a lightning bolt struck near to him, he cried out, "Help, Saint Anne! I'll become a monk!" His life was spared, so Luther left law school to enter a monastery. Leaving law school to enter monastery was a huge change in young Luther's life. He had to believe with all his heart that God had saved him and wished for him to turn to His law instead. Studious as he was, Luther delved into God's ways with total concentration. He realized that man's reason was enough as law. Thus, the concept of sovereign selfhood was reborn after Christ. Luther's law has been referred to as a lawless law given that it refers to the free mind needing no set of rigid laws to abide by. The theologian believed that universal law was written on the heart of man, and rigid reminders to follow it - as in the case of public law - were foolish at best (Bork). In effect, Luther's concept of sovereign selfhood had to do with being one with Christ, and this was absolutely logical from the point of view of a servant of God who had had the Gospels seep into himself. Luther first came into contact with the humanists, especially Melanchthon, Reuchlin, and Erasmus, at the time of the disputation of Leipzig in 1519. It was humanism, in fact, that had compelled Luther to go to the sources, that is, the Scriptures to find the truth for himself. Luther immersed himself in the study of the Bible. He also had to know about the early Church before terms like penance and righteousness could take on new meaning for him. The great theologian was convinced that the Church had lost sight of essential facts from the Scriptures; that, in truth, every servant of God is potentially the Son of Man. The Scriptures now told him clearly: the doctrine of justification by faith alone had been particularly ignored by the Church. Luther also began to teach at this time that salvation is only a gift of God's grace through Jesus Christ, and this gift is received entirely by faith. Martin Luther was one of the inspirations for the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century. In the year 1517, the man had posted 95 theses on a church door as an invitation to debate. Luther was challenging certain portion of the Roman Catholic doctrine and number of specific practices. From the church door in Wittenberg, the movement gained adherents in the German states, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and parts of France. Change was called for, and even before Luther, prominent personalities such as John Wycliffe (1330-84) and John Huss (1369-1415) had raised their voice. Could one look at the Address to the Christian Nobility as a repudiation of the Fourth Lateran Council How and why What were the consequences of this address for lay-church relations and how did it affect the rise of the early modern state What role did Calvin's doctrine play in the development of early European political theory Luther's Address to the Christian Nobility of the German nation opens with the words: The Romanists,

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Article pertaining to a change in the supply demand,pricing of a Essay

Article pertaining to a change in the supply demand,pricing of a particular product or service - Essay Example During the height of fighting in January 2003, the price of cocoa on world commodity exchanges more than doubled surpassing $2,700 a ton. While it has fallen back to about $1,700 a ton now that a tentative peace prevails, it remains historically high. (Cocoa was trading for about $1,000 a ton before the outbreak of the war). Chocolate companies have already passed some of the added cost to the consumers. In 2003, Nestle increased its chocolate prices by 10% while Hershey’s and Mars raised the wholesale price of some of their most popular candy bars y a similar amount. Swiss chocolate maker, Lindt, Kellogg’s Keebler, and Kraft’s Nabisco have also raised prices. The war has also set back attempts by the world’s large chocolate companies to curb the use of child labor and help improve the lives of the people in the Ivory Coast by teaching them new farming techniques and business practices. Worse still for the Ivory Coast, where the incomes of six million people – about 35% of the population – are linked to cocoa farming, is that chocolate companies may begin rethinking their reliance on the country amid fears of continuing political instability. â€Å"If things don’t improve,† says Anne Prendergast, an analyst with the commodities trading firm Refco in New York, â€Å"over the next five years one may see a gradual erosion of production from the Ivory Coast.† In the succeeding weeks the rebels and the government have made progress toward peace. The next several months are critical. If the Ivory Coast can begin to mend its shredded political and social fabric, it may be able to undo the damage already don to its cocoa economy. But if unrest continues, the situation could become dire for both the country’s cocoa farmers and the world’s chocolate companies. The war turned any of the major cocoa centers in the western part of the Ivory Coast in the battlefields. Farmers abandoned

Monday, July 22, 2019

How Christianity and Judaism are Alike and Different Essay Example for Free

How Christianity and Judaism are Alike and Different Essay Judaism and Christianity are two of the many religions of the world. Both of these religions can be found in the Middle East. Although they are very similar, they also differ in many ways. People who believe in the Jewish religion are called Jews. Jews believe that the Messiah is yet to come. In the world there are about 13 million Jewish followers. Jews go to a synagogue to worship their Messiah. They also read the Torah, which is their Holy Book. Abraham founded Judaism in 1700 B.C.E. Jews consider Jerusalem a holy city because of the Wailing Wall is located there, (which is the last remnant of the second temple.) Finally, Jews believe that they are the Chosen People and that Israel is the Promise Land. On the other hand you have Christianity, these followers are called Christians. Christians believe that Jesus was the Son of God and the Messiah. They also believe that Jesus suffered and died for peoples sins and then that he rose from the dead. There are over 1,000 million Christian followers all over the world! Christians believe that Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem so they consider Jerusalem to be a Holy City. They also believe in God and read about their religion in a Bible in a Church. Finally, Jesus established Christianity in 4 B.C.E. Now youve learned all about the differences between Judaism and Christianity but now you have to learn the similarities between the two religions. Both religions are monotheistic meaning they have one God who created the universe. Also, both consider Jerusalem a holy city in different ways. Both religions also have a sacred book that they read to discover things of their religion, although these religions have different books they still learn many similar things, and finally, both religions recognize Jesus in some way, either as a prophet or a Messiah. So, as you can see Judaism and Christianity are very similar but also very different.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Gilgamesh And The Legend Of King Arthur English Literature Essay

Gilgamesh And The Legend Of King Arthur English Literature Essay Synthesizing is bringing together of multiple texts. In this case, we shall compare and contrast two legends by different authors, epic of Gilgamesh and the legend of King Arthur. Although these two literary texts have comparisons, they also have differences. The outstanding difference is that one is an Epic and the other is a legend (Danny 4). To compare and contrast the epic of Gilgamesh and the legend of king Arthur, one must first know what the words epic and legend mean. Basically, epic is a long narrative poem about the deeds of a semi-god, also known as a superhuman hero whose actions are depended on as fate of a nation, tribe or human race ( Danny 6).This usually consists of adventure of a filled plot and is concerned with timeless human challenges ranging from honor, jealousy, hatred and war. These contain gods and goddesses and the setting is fixed in a far distance place at a time long past. Epics are based on legends and myths. A legend, consist of a superman who manages to solve some problems that a group of people have encountered for long. It also consists of an adventure filled plot. Having known that, there is now a better understanding of these two stories (Danny 10). Eric of Gilgamesh is a story that revolves around Gilgamesh king of Uruk, who was two thirds god and one third men. He was physically beautiful and, very strong and very wise. His kingship was so cruel and he lorded over his subjects, raping any woman whether a wife or a daughter of his noblemen or warrior (Danny12). He accomplished building his projects through forced labor. His subjects complained to the gods and they decided to keep him under checks by creating Enkidu magnificent just like Gilgamesh. The two became good friends and Gilgamesh felt so bad when Enkidu dies from an illness inflicted by the gods. Upon the death of his friend, Gilgamesh travels to the end of edge of the world and learned about the days before the deluge and other secrets of the gods, and he recorded them on stone tablets (Danny 14). The epic begins with Enkidu. He lives with animals, suckling their breasts, grazing meadows and drinking at their watering places. In a bid to tame him he is meant to sleep with a woman but this does not happen as he is rejected since he is part of human world. He would later fight with Gilgamesh only for him to be defeated. They become friends and set off looking for an adventure to share (Danny 18). The legend of King Arthur is a narrative that revolves around Roman Empire and its fall as their armies flee the British isle. Arthur, a heroic knight and devoted Christian, is torn between his desire to travel to Rome to serve his faith and his royalty to the land of his birth. As England falls apart, Arthur throws his lot with a band of knights who hope to restore order to their fair and pleasant land and hopes to win freedom for his comrades. With time, Arthur and his men join forces with Merlin, a shaman whose band of renegade knights were often pitched in the battle against roman forces. Forming a united front as loyal English men against the invading Saxon armies, Arthur, Merlin, and the brave beautiful Guinevere are determined to unite a sovereign Britain under one army and one king (Morris et al 55). The legend of King Arthur is in comparison to the epic of Gilgamesh because Arthurs closest companion was Merlin while Gilgameshs closest companion was Enkidu and neither of these two forgot their friends. Enkidu only came into contact with Gilgamesh after becoming a man. Enkidu released the animal traps when they are caught, so to make him a man the prostitutes slept with him so that the animals would be ashamed of him and reject him. King Arthur became aware of Merlin when he was still a young man (Morris et al 62). When Arthur was born, Merlin placed him in the care of sir Ector, throughout his boyhood; Arthur learned the ways of chivalry, knighthood and how to become a gentleman. At the tournament one day Arthur pulled Excalibur from the stone and this is what brought upon Arthur meeting Merlin once again. In the legend of King Arthur, Merlin exclaimed that if men forgot it was their doom. Gilgamesh along with Enkidu together fought and killed humbaba, protector of the cedar forest, and the bull of heaven, sent as punishment to Gilgamesh for killing Gilgamesh. Neither King Arthur nor Gilgamesh forgot their faithful friends. King Arthur fought many battles with Merlin at his side, supporting him using magic to help Arthur gain a better understanding of the world. Upon the death of Enkidu, Gilgamesh searched a long time before finding the secret of eternal life, but he was unable to return it to Enkidu to restore his life to him. When Merlin was frozen from Morgannas twisted magic, King Arthur thought that Merlin deserted him. (Morris et al 68). In conclusion, there are many distinct comparisons as well as contrasts that are seen in these two wondrous narratives. Some of which include the diverse contrast of the type of literary writing and the correspondence of the faithful companions of both Gilgamesh and King Arthur. This is why The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Legend of Arthur are the same yet unlike. Although there are so many similarities between The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Legend of King Arthur, there are so many differences. One outstanding difference is that Gilgamesh was a tyrant while Arthur was a hero. Gilgamesh thought he was better than everybody else for he did not allow the brides to sleep with their husbands until Gilgamesh was with them first. Gilgamesh split Uruk up, the elders stayed at the marketplace, the animals were less than people, there was n any hunting laws (Morris et al 72). Because Enkidu fled the animals from the hunters traps Gilgamesh sent a prostitute to make Enkidu a man so that the animals would not accept him. King Arthur was a hero because he believed in the equality of man. Instead of being at the head of the table he made all the knights sit at the round table so that there was an equivalency among the knights and their mistresses. King Arthur slept only with and what he thought to be his wife. This is one reason why The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Legend of King Arthur are distinct (Morris et al 78). Work cited: Danny P. The epic of Gilgamesh.2nd ed. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1997 (2-100) Morris, Albert, Paul. The Epic of Gilgamesh: An Old Babylonian Version. Book Tree, 2003 (3-112) Arnold C. Legends of the Arts: 50 Inspiring Stories of Creative People. Good Year Books, 2007

Refugees, Children in detention and rights

Refugees, Children in detention and rights Refugees, Children in detention Backdrop Half of the worlds refugees are children but their voices are amongst the least heard. Amidst the debate and conflict around refugees and border protection, the rights of refugee children have been neglected. The vulnerable condition of refugee children is evident from the statement of Ibrahim Ishreti, a refugee child living on bridging visa, he says: before coming to Australia we heard that everyones human rights and freedoms are respected here but nobody would believe what is happening to us†¦ We dont have any human rights and are treating like animals. Like other human beings our lives are not normal and our feelings and thinking are dead. We are depressed and can not smile[1]. Australia is signatory of significant number of human rights treaties including the1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and own affluent custom of providing shelter to refugees, however the current policy of mandatory detention for on-shore arrival including children (whether accompanied or unaccompanied) has acutely damaged its international reputation. The mandatory detention might be justifiable policy concerns but it advanced wide community pro and contra debate and discussion in the country. The writer is a Pakistani origin immigrant in Australia. Pakistan considers a poorest country of the world host over a million Afghan refugees enjoying ample freedoms, however in Australia where the number of unauthorized arrivals has never been much more than 4000 in any one year are placed indefinitely in detention camps with limited access to services, hence the motive for selecting this topic. Key Aspects of the Policy The inherent intentions for implementing the mandatory detention policy are to have an â€Å"ordered† approach to immigration and to make certain that the countrys boundaries are secure. But little or no consideration has been given to the impact of these polices on the children who are caught up in them. That policy ââ€"  Denies internationally recognised fundamental human rights to all children of particular social group; ââ€"  Children without committing any crime are put behind razor wire and are locks up. ââ€"  And fails to recognises the vulnerability and special needs of these children. United Nations being representative body of the international community has undertaken the responsibility for the promotion and protection of human rights of all human beings including children. Therefore the UN has adopted separate legislation i.e. â€Å"UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)† in 1989 for the protection of child rights to which Australia became party in 1990. The UNCRC is an exhaustive code of guidance and management for policy development and practices relating to children. This specific child rights legislation emphasizes that a child seeking refugee status is entitle for appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance. The various human rights treaties grant universal rights to refugee children like all other people and additional rights as children and particular rights as refugee. Therefore refugee children are entitled for special treatment and care and not to be treated discriminately. Nevertheless many Australian might support or oppose the governments policy of dealing asylum seekers but the indisputable reality is that subjecting children to any form of detention is a breach of their guaranteed rights. Imprisoning these children in the context of UNCRC is either â€Å"cruel and inhuman treatment† or in soft words is â€Å"harsh treatment†, which are undesirable under the convention. The concerns due to which these children fled from their countries, detention adds in their sorrows and concerns. Therefore if we cant recompense their grievances and concerns then we dont have the right to add into it. The UNCRC articulates[2] that â€Å"holding children in detention shall be used as a measure of last resort and only for the shortest possible time†. But the Australian practice seems to be the denial of this vested right since here refugee children are detained at the outset of their unauthorized arrival. Without going into the facts finding of their flight for a known country putting these children in detention is like closing eyes from their dilapidated conditions they suffered from in their home countries. Being national of this country our happiest lives can never comprehend the worse situations they passed from and pushing into confinement compel them to spend formative years of their lives in detention, which will obviously damage their future personality traits[3]. Keeping children in mandatory detention is denial of their internationally recognised basic human rights. Oftenly it has been experienced that during relief activities the children needs are not properly taking care of which are of vital importance for their normal development and growth. Every child has certain age-specific requirements that must be satisfied, for instance basic health care, nutrition and education are necessary for physical and mental development. Healthy psychosocial development depends in large measure on the nurturing and stimulation that children receive as they grow, and on the opportunities that they have to learn and master new skills. The healthy psychosocial development in refugee children should involve counseling and skills for coping effectively the multiple trauma of loss, uprooting and often more damaging experiences. Hence where the childrens developmental needs are not sufficiently met it results in long-term tragic consequences. Challenges and/or Controversies The Australia international obligations relating to refugees and children are not adequately publicised amongst public at large therefore everyone has their own perception about refugees. Majority believe that refugees are lairs, criminals, ‘forum shoppers, welfare cheats and queue jumpers[4]. It is interesting to note neither international law recognizes the terminology of ‘queue jumper nor other civilized nations use this terminology. The obvious reason for using this terminology could be that Australia is not willing to grant refugee status every individual opted for such status instead it has the intention to allow a carefully selected populace of pre-chosen countries to live as refugees in the country. A significant number of Australians also consider refugees a threat to economy and social services sector of the country. The arrival of children seeking refuge in Australia is comparatively less than the other developed countries, however still children remain a significant percentage of the total number of arrivals. Sometimes children flee alongwith their parents and/or guardians and sometimes alone (usually known as unaccompanied minors). The flight from homeland to the country of refuge subjects all including children to the notions of a new authority though a child neither has any motive nor has any voice in the decision of flight. Article 3 of the UNCRC gives overriding effect to the principle of ‘Best Interests of the child in these wording; â€Å"In all actions concerning children, weather undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration†. The principle of ‘Best Interests of the child has been enunciated in different Australian laws however the law relating to onshore management of asylum seekers does not contain this principle. The Migration Amendment Act of 1992 identifies asylum seekers as designated persons.[5] Section 189 states that â€Å"a designated person must be detained during the processing of their refugee status†. Section 192 goes further giving two options for release obtaining a Temporary Protection Visa or being deported.[6] This section spells for mandatory detention of everyone including children till the decision of his/her status.[7] Here at this junction the lacking of distinction between immigration status of adults and children confuse the internationally accepted principle of ‘Best Interests of the child and same standard treatment is in contravention of the UNCRC. The policy of mandatory detention can not be justified on the plea that since childrens needs cannot be met in isolation, therefore they are kept with their caregiver in detention. As it is believed that children needs are normally meet most effectively within the context of family and community. It is therefore, necessary to strengthen the capacities of refugee families to meet their own needs and improve the participation and situation of adult refugees particularly women, in their child related activities and in this way they will contribute significantly to the welfare of their children. Selection of one challenge and its reflection on policy based solution Best Interest In relation to the refugee children whether accompanied or unaccompanied the primary goals of any action or program must be: To ensure the protection and healthy development of these children To achieve durable solutions appropriate to the immediate and long term developmental needs of these children. In absence of any uniform definition of ‘best interests for every child, a good indicator to judge whether a child best interests are being achieved, would be a childs aptitude that how much s/he enjoys his or her rights in a available environment.[8] Since the UNCRC also doesnt clearly define childs ‘best interest therefore in all actions and decisions affecting a child; â€Å"it is the best interests of that individual child which must be taken into account rather than children generally. The childs best interests†¦..must be the subject of active consideration†[9]. It necessitates to be established that childrens interests are of primary concerns and have adequately been conferred. The principle of ‘best interests reiterated in article 9(1) of the UNCRC states that children should never be separated from their parents against their will except when ‘necessary for the best interests of the child. The interaction between the ‘best interests principle, family unity and immigration can be enlightened by referring preamble of the UNCRC providing a reference point by recognizing that: â€Å"[T]he child, for the full and harmonious development of his of her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding†. In order to support the best interests of the refugee children many of the obligations under the UNCRC are relevant for instance, protection from violence, the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, special care for children with disabilities, education, keeping confidentiality of their personal information, non-discrimination, recreation and the right to full cultural life (including language) are all factors that create a nurturing environment. Incorporating Children voices into policy debate UNCRC believes ‘voiced code for childrens participation in the programs affecting them. This legal instrument marks a change by respecting them as human being capable of full understandings and has power to decision and disregarded that they are being objects of adult intervention. The childrens right to participate in fellow societies has been accepted in articles 12-15 of the UNCRC. This convention has offered in addition to civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights, the right to freedom of opinion expression, information, religion and conscience; and the right to form associations[10]. Refugees children being most vulnerable members of Australian society, they should have the right to have their fundamental needs for shelter, food, physical and emotional care and education have been met, and to live freely and securely within our society. Our society should value and protect them. We are equally responsible alongwith the government to ensure these needs are met if a childs family/caregiver cannot or will not protect their rights. But due to their protracted legal status refugee children have concerns. They are not part of policy decision impacting their lives, hence condemned unheard and ignored. Purportedly three agencies the federal government, the private reformative firms and the state government are in charge of the management of detention centres. There is strong likelihood that these agencies would not consider childrens interests before their own. When the managers of such agencies are in chase of jurisdictional and policy issues where would children placed?[11] This management attitude proves the genuine worries, distress and concern of refugee children regarding their unresolved legal situation and their inability to move towards integration into the Australian community. Many children describe themselves as happy, good, but detailed their depression and distress that accompanied being in a limbo situation. The non-resolution of their migration or refugee situation is their paramount concern. The current manifestations of distress, while particularly concerning are equalled by the knowledge of the long term impact of ‘not belonging; to a community; to a state and to a nation. If a child cannot access normal citizenship, then their ability to grow emotionally and integrate themselves into their new country is diminished. These children have the possibility of becoming adults with a sense of frustration and anger that will impact on their lives and will impact on our lives in the Australian community in the forthcoming years. [NOTE: the writer considers the points of this paragraph as specifics impacting her local area of residence surrounded by refugee children] Conclusion If we step into the shoes of refugees and realize their sorrows and grieves then we will never deny the rights of refugee children to live with their families and reunite them when separated, having access to all basic necessities of life. If everyone of us recognize and struggle to make available all such rights to our children then why deny it for Iraqi, Afghan and Iranian children? We should provide them such harmonize environment where they can play, grow and learn. â€Å"We should keep ready ourselves to answer our children when they will look back on this time and ask what we did for refugee kids, at least we can say we gave them their childhood†[12].

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Essay --

The World Health Organization defines being healthy as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.† Unfortunately for races that are at disadvantages that definition has very little weight behind it. This issue or racism is not only apparent in health status, it is also obvious in health care and in current health care research for the treatment and cure of diseases. Therefore, current African Americans are not [FINISH THESIS] One main factor in the fight for equality in healthcare is access to health insurance. In 2012 more that 44 million non-elderly citizens did not have medical insurance and did not have the finical ability to access healthcare. Racial minorities accounted for a large disproportionate amount of that uninsured number. Over 18% of people of color under the age of 65 years old are currently without health insurance. In the United States, health insurance access is often tied to their employer. Due to many forms of discrimination, racial minorities have found themselves placed in low wage jobs. Th... Essay -- The World Health Organization defines being healthy as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.† Unfortunately for races that are at disadvantages that definition has very little weight behind it. This issue or racism is not only apparent in health status, it is also obvious in health care and in current health care research for the treatment and cure of diseases. Therefore, current African Americans are not [FINISH THESIS] One main factor in the fight for equality in healthcare is access to health insurance. In 2012 more that 44 million non-elderly citizens did not have medical insurance and did not have the finical ability to access healthcare. Racial minorities accounted for a large disproportionate amount of that uninsured number. Over 18% of people of color under the age of 65 years old are currently without health insurance. In the United States, health insurance access is often tied to their employer. Due to many forms of discrimination, racial minorities have found themselves placed in low wage jobs. Th...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Stephen William Hawking :: essays research papers

Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his father's old college. Stephen wanted to do Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science. Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science. His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Stephen William Hawking :: essays research papers Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his father's old college. Stephen wanted to do Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science. Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science. His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Character of Huck Finn in Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Fi

The Character of Huckleberry Finn       In human nature, people are generally kind before they are aggressive towards others. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain presents many of his characters as having this type of personality. They exemplify a certain trust of others. They are always hospitable to people they do not know. His characters are also willing to help those in need. Mark Twain presents his characters as being trusting of others, hospitable to strangers, and helpful to those in need.    Two characters in Huckleberry Finn that show they have a trust for others are Jim and Huck. Jim, in fact, may have been too trusting of others. This is shown by the fact that he believed that the king and the duke were royalty, when they were actually only frauds. Jim also trusted Huck enough to know that Huck would not reveal that Jim was a run away slave. Jim went to Huck in his times of need because he trusted that Huck would be there for him. Huck was also trusting of people. He trusted that Jim would not reveal that he was still alive. He also tr...

Statistical Literature Review and Critique of Empirical Article

ARTICLE REVIEW AND CRITIQUE: â€Å"Efficiency of Brand Placement in an International Film- Effects of Exposure in a Local Context† Slim Khalbous and Merium Maazoul Journal of Creative Communications, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2010), p. 23-46 SYNOPSIS Product and brand placement arouses a particular interest at the announcers. However the massive use of brands in international programs incites us to wonder about the effect of the local socio-cultural context on the efficiency of this creative technique.This research presents, first an explanatory abstract frame of the influence of the local context variables and the variables of programming on the recall of the placement; and second an empirical validation realized in two phases. First of all, a qualitative analysis of contents by experts; then a quantitative study by experimentation realized with 150 individuals. The results show that, globally the effect of the local context on the memorization of the placement is direct and t hat the recall of the placed brands depends on attitudes towards the spoken language, on social interactions and some characteristics of the audience.KEYWORDS Brand placement, recall, programming, context, exposing language, social interactions The empirical application was done by showing a James Bond film that had several product placements in a part of North Africa called Tunisia; an area where a lot of international films are consumed. The study wanted to explore the â€Å"effect of the specific context related to the international film on the effectiveness of the placement in terms of memorization. In order to do this, the research had to go through three stages: (1) a state of the art, which generated some of the research propositions (2) a qualitative phase, to choose and analyze the international film, and (3) a quantitative phase, which would measure the impact of exposure in the effectiveness of placement in the film. Attitudes toward Language Effect Foreign language can improve the advertising effectiveness for a product because a foreign language attracts attention, creates a positive attitude, and is more memorable, which can be explained by Helfer’s theory of mbiguity. A study done by Khalbous and Maazaul in 2007 proved that the â€Å"attitude toward advertising is positive when the audience prefers watching the programs in French and commercials in Arabic. † Social interactions also play a huge role in product memorization and attitudes because people will remember what they were saying or doing with others while watching television or film. Individual Variables Effect Gender and the area of residence are two variables on the effectiveness of product placement.American, French, and Austrian men are more likely to accept a product seen in films than women according to studies. However, another study showed that women have more positive attitudes towards placement. â€Å"On the other hand, women would be emotionally more touched th an men, by the stimuli which surrounds them, especially television programs to which they are exposed (Schwartz et al. 1980). † The area of residence is the other factor. The wealthier areas are more likely to be less favorable towards product placement because they are exposed to it more, and have become bored with the predictability of it. According to the study of Hall (2004), the percentage of consumers who said they would try a product if they saw it in a film is 53 percent in Mexico, 49 percent in Singapore, 35 percent in India, and only 26 percent in the USA and 8 percent in France. † The Effect of Specific Context Related to the Program The appreciation of an international film, and the intensity of the emotions generated by the film were the two aspects being studied in this area of research.Most of the interest was about the impact of the characteristics of the film and how they affect the audience’s cognitive reactions. Program Liking Effect Although th ere was no link found between the film’s likability and the memory of product placement in a study conducted in 1994 by Karrh, there was evidence of a link found in 2000. In that study, Blonde & Roozen (2007) found evidence of people being more likely to remember a product placed in a film they liked. International Placement and Tunisian Local ContextThe empirical validation of the conceptual framework was conducted in two stages: the qualitative analysis to select and qualify the selected film (the visual content analysis by experts), and then (2) a quantitative study which determined the impact of the contextual variables on the effectiveness of the placement of products in the film (the experiment). Selection and Analysis of Placements in an International Film: Qualitative Stage Choice of International FilmJames Bond- Tomorrow Never Dies (1997) was the film chosen by a board of four experts for three reasons: it’s known for use of product placement, because the film was not created to pertain to a certain audience, and because the old exit date of the film eliminates short and medium term memorization. Quantitative Experimentation of the Selected Film The main focus was to test the effects of the exposure on the efficiency of placement, while controlling the external variables. Model and Hypothesis of MeasurementIn order to test the relationship between the variables, two things were necessary: firstly, to propose measurements of conceptual framework, and secondly, to form the hypothesis of research to be studied quantitatively. Measurement and Experimental Design The sample used in this study was composed of 150 undergraduate students whose average age ranged between 20 and 22 years old. In order to minimize sampling confound, the students were from different areas and levels of study, different income levels, and were from three different universities, each in different cities in the country.Type of Recalled Placements: Qualitative Analysis of Frequencies According to Table 2, the frequencies of recall of the product placements show that BMW stands out more than the others because it is the only audio-visual placement in the film. It was also repeated several times. Next is Ericsson, whose high scores are due to the familiarity of the brand to Tunisians. The scores may be high for Ericsson, but its rate of recall is low because of its very subtle placement in the film.According to Khalbous and Maazaul, â€Å"the qualitative analysis showed that the high scores of recall were obtained for the audio-visual placements, integrated in the scenario of film, where the brand is presented in a very visible way, accompanied by several integrated and prominent recalls of placement. These results agree results agree with the conclusions of Lehu’s study (2005), according to which the traditional criteria of the placement does not systematically guarantee the success of a placement, by enhancing the recall of the brand.It is thus necessary to consider a global approach integrating the various creative techniques of placement. † Three Things I Liked First of all, the topic was interesting to me because I can relate my own experiences to it. For instance, I have seen a few James Bond movies, and what I love mostly about them is the cars. When I think of James Bond, I think of an Aston Martin V12 Vanquish, a dream car of mine only because of the film James Bond 007- Die Another Day.Obviously, the product placement caught my attention, like it did to most of the sample of college students in Africa that were being studied, and was memorable to me, since I’m still talking about it today, even though I saw the film about 5 years ago. Another thing I liked was the study about audio-visual seeming to make the biggest impact on product memorization. I agree with this conclusion because while searching for a movie clip online of my favorite moment of the James Bond 007 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish, I s tumbled onto the wrong clip.I didn’t even remember the part when James Bond’s assistant introduces him to the Vanquish. Based upon research done, the article tells me why: because there was no sound to go along with it. The only part of the movie (or actually, the car) I remember was a very noisy moment full of engine revs and tire squeals. I also liked the study they did on emotion influencing memory, and agree with it also. I can remember when I saw the James Bond movie at the theater, and the feeling I had while watching James Bond drive the Aston Martin on a sheet of ice during a high-speed chase.I was scared, nervous, excited, and my adrenaline was pumping. Immediately after the scene, I turned to my boyfriend and asked â€Å"What kind of car was that? † because I knew it belonged on my dream list. To this day, when someone asks me what my dream car is, I say â€Å"An Aston Martin V12 Vanquish. † I’ve never seen the movie again, but that car, and the feeling I had when I saw it has stayed with me. A few minutes ago, when I went to YouTube and did a search for the â€Å"007 ice chase† I eventually got the right clip; the one that gave me that feeling of excitement.I was surprised, and a little disappointed that I didn’t get the same feeling. Actually, I’m thinking of changing my dream car now, because I don’t think it’s quite as attractive as I remembered it being. This raises a question that I didn’t see research done on in the article: What are the benefits of product placement in an international film vs. an international commercial. I’ve seen some pretty in-depth, action-packed car commercials, but none of them have managed to persuade me to let go of my first dream car, the Aston Martin. Why is that?Is it because there isn’t enough time for a commercial to spark that kind of height of emotion in me? Or maybe because I view commercials as being annoying (except f or Super Bowl commercials; those I like because it gives me something to look forward to during the game). Maybe it’s just the whole experience of being in a movie theater, with that special someone, and being surrounded by loud â€Å"Vrooms! †, and hearing others’ reactions to the movie that just can’t be captured by watching a commercial. I don’t know, but I think these researcher guys are onto something! What I Didn’t LikeLike I said before, I would have liked for them to compare the effect of international commercials and the effect of international films because maybe there is a way to get create enough emotion in a short 120 second commercial if it’s in a language not native to the viewers. I would also like to know about the similarities and differences between the effectiveness of product placement in an international film and one that is native if there are any. Question According to Khalbous and Maazaul, high scores of recal l of the products placed in the James Bond film were obtained for what reasons?

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Mittal Steel in 2006

Mittal detach in 2006 Changing the Global firebrand Game Industry Analysis Although mark was a extravagantlyly filmed unspoilt, the intentness as a wholly was largely unprofitable. unmatched reason for this was that the industry remained super disconnected in contrast to their suppliers and even few of their buyers, who were considerably to a greater extent consolidated. Aside from the change magnitude argument that fragmentation contri aloneed to, it alike fast the steal industrys bar slang mogul to lancinating substantive suppliers and in some cases, such as the machine industry, the buyers.The yielding high fixed costs, volatile raw material prices, and intense price competition fueled unstable favourableness. Adding to the fragmentation issues was a lack of differentiation in the market. For the long-lasting time there were really just two crossroadion possibilities. One, being goodly interconnected and producing higher(prenominal)-grade marque at a hi gher cost of operation, or two, de-verticalize and tension on unkept cost, low-grade marque fruition. Depending on the production selected, the resulting rec overible guest base was limited.This lack of differentiation further fueled the limited negociate power of brand name manufacturers. As stated above, leaf blade was highly enquireed. The problem was that the emersion of that demand remained quite stagnate for nearly 20 years. It wasnt until the explosion of growth in the Chinese construction industry, attributing to 25% of amount leaf blade consumption, that the steel industry saw all profitability. In an industry where customers demand a low cost and a consistent product, being able to admit a reliable supply dapple being as cost effective as possible was samara to a firmlys success.Though there was a spike in Chinese demand, only those strategi bodey positioned could glide slope the true value of the Chinese market. This was because the steel industry ope rated primarily on an intra-regional basis. legion(predicate) a nonher(prenominal) factors attributed to this, but a firms dependence on raw material access, and trying to avoid high passage and tariff costs, as well as deli actually lags, were the primary reasons for high regional trade. In order to access the benefits of regional trade, firms had to expand their operations by dint of with(predicate) high FDI in the form of M&As.This gained them access to highly profitable regions and it allowed firms to bedspread their risk over a larger ara, reducing the impact of demand fluctuations in one particular region. The reason many an(prenominal) of these M&A opportunities existed was because of a study shit from judicature owned steel gives to privatization. with and through and through privatization, FDI opportunities became possible in many countries, thus make intra-regional trade more accessible and attractive. Consolidation & Integration Recognizing that the dynamic s of the market were changing, LNM was quick to take advantage.He was tight in his belief that they only bureau to create sustained success was through consolidation and integration. With increased privatization opportunities available, LNM began a series of M&As that would gain him access to regions that were highly profitable, had lower trade union movement costs, and would position him to catch higher bargaining power with suppliers. LNM made the first moves in the industry toward consolidation, and was this strategic initiative that has since compulsive the evolution of the industry to where it is today.A major inauguration of value creation was derived from their technological allure in DRI. LNM decided early on to cogitate their operations around integrated minimills, which was untraditional at the time. through and through this coordinate he was able to capture the upper limit value of his operation, using scrap in the minimills, indeed reverse integrating into DRI . once unreliable, DRI engineering science had advanced so such(prenominal) that its output was now equal to the quality of integrated steel plants.This technology stronghold go awayd them crack quality steel at a cheaper cost of production, providing them with a huge competitive advantage. Additionally, It was this technology, aided by a proven SWAT police squad and protocol, which supported their ability to transform underperforming government owned plants to profitable ones in a short period. LMNs initial onrush was to resurrect distressed government owed plants then breath new life into them through technology sharing and smart practices.He shortly sought larger targets that would scoreer him not only economies of scale, but too provide competitive advantages through geographic scope. outset with Karmet, he began to shift his targeting toward plants that were either highly integrated, possessed fundamental mineral rights, or supplied a strategic geographic advantage . Through designing their activity architecture in this way, Mittal steel became the worlds largest and most integrated steelman providing strong positions in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.The result of their strategic status, deal with their focus of coordination through KIP and KMP, made Mittal the first firm in the industry to operate as a transnational organization. Each plant provided its own uniqueness, providing different capabilities and skills that could be harness for the good of the whole organization. thither was also a heavy flow of people, materials and finance between the interdependent plants, but at the center of it all was the Mittal marque direct tight coordination and a shared strategic decision making process. On a regional level, they operated through regional hubs.This allows Mittals positioning of adjacent plants to source from the same(p) suppliers, increasing their bargaining power and reliableness of supply, while not jeopardizing arsenib alism of sales as each plants customer base was unique to their location. Mittals vertical integration in mining and low cost position helps support profitability and helps toreduce capital expenditure needs. They are the most diversified steel federation in the world in scathe of assetlocation and market presence. They also acquire a diverse product range, including both flat and long steel.As such, Mittal is not overly dependent on any singleregion, product, or end market. These benefits are somewhat mitigated however by the risks associated with Mittals rapid expansion through sciences. These include such things as institutional risks associated with emerging markets and uncertainties regarding the integration of newly acquired assets, although Mittalsintegration track participate has been victorious to date. Arcelor scholarship In light of the above information, I believe that Mittal should heed the Arcelor acquisition aggressively.Mittal Steel & Arcelor complement each o ther in terms of geographical coverage and product mix, as there is no hearty overlap. Mittal has strong positions in the U. S. market cheap operations in Central andeasterly Europe, Asia and Africa and vertical raw-material integration. Arcelor is the leader in higher value-added products with strongholds in Western Europe and Brazil, as well as a focus on Russia, India, and China. I believe that the positioning of Arcelors plants and resource capabilities would integrate nicely to Mittals activity architecture.There would be very minimal duplications of effort, and many of the regions that Arcelor operates are in prime locations to source raw materials. The attachment result only strengthen Mittals integrated transnational value chain. Through acquisition, Mittal would produce nearly 110 one thousand million tonnes of steel per year, making them three multiplication as large than their next competitor. Although this can lead to diseconomies of scale, in Mittals case, as the l argest player in the steel industry both globally and in the key markets, the combined group would enjoy significant bargaining power.Additionally, through shared expertise, the combined entity would be in a better position to develop the high growth region of China and South eastern hemisphere Asia. Arcelors alliance with Nippon and Mittals acquisition of Karmet and stake in Valin will provide access to critical Asian markets. disregarding of the synergies the acquisition will create, caution lifelessness needs to be exercised by Mittal. There are evident signs that the acquisition will not be welcomed by Arcelor, presumptuous that Mr. Dolles canceled meeting and unre glowering phone call was an indication to his temperature on the proposal.If the acquisition turned hostile there is a good chance Mittal would have to overpay for Arcelor, which could have adverse affects to it investment ratings. At the incumbent bid price Mittal would already have to leverage 5 jillion and wou ld be in debt by 11. 5 billion. Although they have a good track record of ROI and the industry as a whole has seen a spike in ROIC, they do not want to spend more than they have to. Despite the favorable muniment and perceived synergies, Mittal should pay at a maximum 27. 1 billion for the deal. They should on the face of it try to pay as coterminous to the current bid as possible, but at 27. billion they are exempt in a position where they could access the capital needed given their successful history. Also, at the mark of 27. 1 billion their debt would raise to 20 billion, but with an EBITDA of over 5. 5 billion annually, not to arouse the added revenues from the acquisition, the debt could be confidently paid off in a reasonable timeframe. If the command exceeds the mark of 27. 1 billion, the negotiations should be ceased and Mittal should pursue other opportunities to continue their global mark expansion.