Monday, September 30, 2019

Advanced Practice Nursing Role Essay

Health professionals like nurses have a chance to go for autonomy in the nursing career which is beyond the practice of being a staff nurse. Various pathways for advanced specialization in nursing career have been established for the past few decades. This expansion of responsibilities and vision as a health professional helps nurses to fulfill growth as professional and as a person. Among the advanced practice nursing roles, the author deeply prefer Family Nurse Practitioner specialized in cardiology. This will help her utilize skills in nursing science and as a health care specialist with a twist on promotion of health of the cardiovascular system. Creative APN Role in Health Promotion The author has chosen the field of family nursing practitioner because of the challenges and roles that it holds. The current responsibilities of the family nurse practitioner posts promising personal as well as professional growth on the field of the health care industry. The advance practice nursing role of family nurse practitioner is composed of different skills which pertains to the areas of management skills of community health nursing, patient care, primary care, intervention on the desired population, and it also deals with community assessment and actions regarding the said assessment. It focuses on promotion of health and healthy living, avoidance of degenerative diseases, and the supervision of the illnesses in different ages, both chronic and acute. (UTA 2008) The author has chosen a specialized field in cardiology because in reference to the data given by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention for 2005 Death data table C, the leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular related. According to the statistics, 652, 091 deaths were related to heart problems (CDC 2008). The stated data poses a major concern that there is a very big problem related to cardiovascular disorders. In relation to this, the author envisions to help in solving this problem via the career chosen by the author. The family practice nursing with a specialization in cardiology will help the author contribute in building the foundations of a society with healthy cardio vascular systems. Among the probable setting that the author hopes to practice the stated advanced practice nursing role is in the Christ Hospital. It was established for more than 115 years and it was well known to be one of the leading hospitals which continue to promote, plan and innovate for the healthy future of the region. It was noted as one of the best medical institution in the United States for the last few decades consistently. The setting includes 555 beds with more than 1200 physicians and holds the most advanced and sophisticated technology for health care. It is a not-for-profit acute care facility which is supervised by the highly trained specialists that has great passion for health care. It focuses on the services for major surgery, orthopedics, cardiovascular care and other related fields (Christ Hospital 2008). The competencies required for this job ranges from clinical expertise to social relationship within the community. It requires expertise in retrieving records for the data regarding the health, medical history, psychosocial and family records. Ability to conduct physical examination, for the health problems related to the acute and episodic phases are required as well as the ability to interpret the laboratory findings. Provide health assessment to the visited areas or patients and to arrange referrals to other health professional. It is also required to have a knowledge on developing and implementing plans for the supervision of problems in the acute and episodic problems of the assessed in and out patients. In the competencies required to assess patients also include ability to enclose screening evaluation for the cardiovascular health and other relevant information regarding it, distinguishes between normal and abnormal change. Evaluate the pressure of the family or psychosocial factors on patient sickness, situations related to developmental delays and learning disabilities in all ages, reproductive health of both women and men, sexual health, pregnancy, and postpartum care, assess some problems like substance abuse like drugs. Performs and accurately documents appropriate comprehensive or symptom-focused physical assessment on patients of all ages. Recognize health and cardiovascular risk factors of patients of all ages and families in all stages of the family life cycle. Demonstrates proficiency in family assessment; show proficiency in functional assessment of family members. Assesses specific family health needs within the context of community assessment especially the ones that is related to the cardiovascular diseases. Identifies and plans interventions to promote health with families at risk of heart disease (NONPF 2002). Diagnosing of health status focused on the health of heart is also needed, the following competencies are required. Recognize signs and symptoms of acute physical heart disease across the life span. Recognize signs and symptoms of chronic cardiovascular disease across the life span. Evaluates and summarizes collected data for patients of all ages. Plans complete differential diagnoses, with relevance to the epidemiology, environmental and community characteristics, this also includes life stage development and the arrangement seen with increasing age, family, and heart risk factors (NONPF 2002). Upon diagnosis of the members with cardiovascular or heart related diseases. The planning caring and management of the treatment of the disease will proceed which requires a lot of competencies indicated below. It is required for the nurse to have abilities to provide health information for protection, health promotion, formulate strategies for the intervention and prevention of the cardiovascular diseases which aims in improving the cardiovascular system of the family, requires a knowledge on how to treat acute and chronic of cardiovascular diseases in all ages to minimize the risk of developing complications and increase quality of living, prescribe proper medication for the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, adapts care for to meet the needs of the at-risk patients, evaluate the effectiveness of the plan in relation to the plans made for the at-risk group. Assist the members of the family of the cardiovascular disorder patient, provide referrals to the health care professionals that can support the treatment of the heart disease, and apply the study regarding the idea that is family centered and can supply positive change in the health of the family. Family or Population Health Promotion Theories & Models The family nurse practitioner specialized in the cardiology focuses on promoting health in relation to individual level and the family level. The health promotion theory that is suitable for the family nurse practitioner in the individual level is the Health Belief Model which focuses on the person’s perception of the possible risk and the evaluation of the actions that would prevent the problem from occurring again. In this case, the author’s future interaction with individuals who are at-risk to cardiovascular diseases will give her chance to use the said model in promoting the health information. Upon approaching, an at-risk patient, the author will be discussing the perceived susceptibility of the subject to cardiovascular diseases and the initial reaction of the patient will more likely to be curios. The next part is the explanation of the perceived severity and the possible consequences of the CVD in the patient; the next step is to discuss with the patient the possible benefits of positive action. In such case, the patient will soon realize the benefits of the perceived action. And will arrive eventually on the conclusion that the patient should consider on performing the perceived actions that could give benefits. The author also considers another theory of which the community level is involved. The community organization is theory which focuses the involvement of the members of the community in evaluating health problems. Upon interaction within community sites, the author will soon be empowering these families in relation to the participation in campaigns for heart related problems. The participation of the community and the relevance of the selected issue to the problem of the community like the cardiovascular diseases will greatly enhance the active development of the community. The most important activity that the author can do is the critical consciousness that she will be spreading in the community (HPA 2008). Agency and Financing of APN Practice The Christ Hospital will be the institution where the author hopes to apply in the mere future it was the medical establishment that was considered in this paper. It was established for more than 115 years and it was well known to be one of the leading hospitals which continue to promote, plan and innovate for the healthy future of the region. It was noted as one of the best medical institution in the United States for the last few decades consistently. The setting includes 555 beds with more than 1200 physicians and holds the most advanced and sophisticated technology for health care. It is a not-for-profit acute care facility which is supervised by the highly trained specialists that has great passion for health care. It focuses on the services for major surgery, orthopedics, cardiovascular care and other related fields (Christ Hospital 2008). The mission of the Christ Hospital is to lead the region in giving the excellent experience in health care especially the personalized one while forwarding clinical excellence, technology and education. The role that the author will be holding will help the institution in a way of providing personalized health care especially in the cardiology patients. The author’s expertise will also help the institution in advancing clinical excellence especially in the field of cardiology. The role will be financially supported by the hospital or allied services institutions relating to cardiology. In the specific case, the Christ Hospital will be responsible for the financial support of the role. The nurse practitioner in the said institution is included in the employee pay. Some stakeholders that can support the role are the health related institutions, hospitals, clinics, nurse organizations and cardiology specialty centers. The role of family practice nurse practitioner goes beyond the limits of a staff nurse which will promote personal and professional growth. The specialization in cardiology will greatly help in the regression of cardiovascular disease cases in the United States. Thus the APN role stated above will surely benefit not only the author but also the society at large.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Maya Angelou Essay

During this class period you need to complete the following essay. Please type it and use proper formatting. The stories are all posted on your Edline page under assignments. You do NOT need the internet for ANY OTHER REASON. When you have completed the essay you need to do the FRED book assignment below. Comparing Texts Author Study: Maya Angelou Writing a Response to Literature: Biographical Approach Maya Angelou has remarked, â€Å"I’m always inspired by men and women who rise†¦That ability to rise is nobleness of the human spirit.† Write an essay in which you analyze Angelou’s beliefs about the human spirit, as reflected in the four works you just read. Before you begin, consider what Angelou has to say about her work: â€Å"I speak to the black experience, but I am always talking about the human condition—about what we can endure, dream, fail at, and still survive.† Writing Your Essay As you plan, draft, and revise your essay, keep the following tips in mind: †¢In the introduction, or the beginning of your essay, include a specific thesis statement that presents the key point you will prove in your essay. †¢Support your ideas with evidence from the four selections. Be sure to analyze how Angelou’s tone and use of stylistic devices contribute to the expression of her themes or main ideas. †¢Make sure that every paragraph has unity and coherence. All the sentences in the paragraph should relate to one main idea and help develop that idea. †¢End your essay with a conclusion in which you summarize your main points. Include a new, but related, closing insight or reflection. Create a one-page document that shows you have understood the book with the 2 parts below: †¢Part 1: First, think of the symbols in the book. Then, find pictures using â€Å"Google images† or â€Å"Clip Art† and paste them into the document. Then give a 1-2 sentence reason for the symbol. †¢Part 2: Write a book review. Make sure you convince me you have read it thoroughly! It should be no more than 1-2 paragraphs. (If you do not finish in class, send to me via email before the end of the day!

Saturday, September 28, 2019

What Does It Cost to Attend Bentley University?

Bentley University, a private nonprofit institution, is known for providing students with relevant, practical, and transferable skills through their educational blend of business, technology, and liberal arts. This mix has made Bentley one of the nation’s best business schools, and their alumni are highly sought after by today’s leading organizations for their professionalism, acumen, and real-world experience. Another thing that Bentley is known for is its price tag. If Bentley University is on your student’s list of dream schools, don’t let the lofty list price dissuade you from applying; most students do not pay the published price of college. Keep reading to learn more about how to calculate the real cost of college. The expense of an education at an institution like Bentley University fluctuates based on a variety of elements that are unique to each student—which makes list price a handy baseline, but a bad predictor of the actual out-of-pocket cost of college. Net price, which is the list price minus any government or institutional aid and merit scholarships, is a better metric for judging what college will really cost. Private colleges and universities typically come with a high price tag and Bentley is no exception. The list price—tuition, room, and board combined—for Bentley University is $63,350 for both in- and out-of-state students. However, as previously mentioned, most students will not pay the published price. Students who pay full price at Bentley are generally from affluent families with incomes surpassing $175,000 a year who fall outside of the top third academically of accepted students. Financial aid net price is calculated by deducting any aid rewarded from grants and scholarships from an institution’s list price. The financial aid net price of Bentley is $55,840. The income level of a student’s family plays a significant role in determining the cost of college—students from lower-income families can anticipate paying less for Bentley than a student with more financial means. Below is a breakdown of net cost at Bentley according to family income: Compared to other colleges and universities, Bentley is on the low end of merit aid awarded. In a poll of over 1,000 schools analyzed by for merit aid generosity, Bentley ranked 802nd. Merit aid is financial aid given without consideration for the financial need of a student, awarded instead for academic skill or achievements outside the classroom such as athletic, arts, or leadership. 37.3% of Bentley students without financial need receive merit aid, with the average amount awarded coming in at $672. Both in- and out-of-state Bentley students who don’t qualify for financial aid will pay an average net price of $62,678—just slightly below the university’s list price. Estimating your chance of getting into a college is not easy in today’s competitive environment. Thankfully, with our state-of-the-art software and data, we can analyze your academic and extracurricular profile and estimate your chances. Our profile analysis tool can also help you identify the improvement you need to make to enter your dream school. Many college students employ loans to pay for a percentage of their education. 61% of Bentley student take out student loans with $4,706 being the average federal student loan across four years. Keep in mind that some students may take out private loans as well. Student outcomes should be on the mind of anyone applying to college—they offer insight into expected graduation and future earnings. 88% of Bentley students graduate within six years of enrolling, meaning prospective students can feel good about their odds of graduating on time. Bentley students will also feel good about their investment in their education when entering the workforce, as the average salary for a Bentley student 10 years after graduation is $86,900. For comparison, the average income of a Waltham, Massachusetts, (home of Bentley University) resident is $35,642 a year and the average household income of a Waltham resident is $73,162 . Located on the outskirts of Boston—it’s just 15 miles away—Waltham is an expensive place to go to school. The cost of living index (a number used to give a general idea of the expense of living in a location) of Waltham is 171.1 according to Sperling’s Best Places . To put it in context, the cost of living index of the average U.S. city is 100 and the cost of living index in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is 139. 78% of Bentley students choose to live on campus. Those who choose to live off campus will find accommodations on the expensive side—housing is more than 200% more expensive in Waltham than the national average which the primary driver of the high cost of living in Waltham. The average rent for a one-bedroom apartment in Waltham is $1,737. Two- and three- bedroom apartments, on average, command $2,117 and $2,653 respectively. Students can browse listings and get assistance finding off-campus housing through the Bentley University Off-Campus Housing Service . Students who want to work while attending Bentley will be happy to learn that Massachusetts has one of the nation’s highest minimum wages at $12 an hour. This makes Massachusetts one of 29 states with a minimum wage greater than the federally mandated $7.25 an hour. Work-study is a favored way for college students to earn extra money while pursuing their studies and Bentley supports the Federal-Work Study Program while also institutionally funding on-campus positions for students who don’t qualify for the federal work-study program. Bentley’s Student Employment Office can advise students with any questions or concerns about employment, including advising students about off-campus jobs. Bentley considers academic scholarships for all its first-year fall semester students. There is no application process and eligible students are notified of their eligibility upon admission. For students willing to put in the effort, a wide spectrum of private scholarships are also available. Our blog Getting a Head Start on Your Scholarship Search is a great jumping off point. One scholarship you’ll read about in Getting a Head Start on Your Scholarship Search is the National Merit Scholarship, which benefits approximately 15,000 students each year. Interested in learning more about the National Merit Scholarship and seeing if you qualify? If so, read our blog H ow to Qualify for the National Merit Scholarship Program . If Bentley University is on your list of dream schools but you’re struggling to calculate the cost—or simply want support through the application process—our College Application Program is just for you. Our advisors can guide you through the application process while our Finance Tool allows college-bound students to gain a better understanding of the expense of their education and what that expense means for their long-term financial health. Contact today to learn more about how our Applications Program can benefit you. Â  

Friday, September 27, 2019

Advise Marcos on his rights under the European Convention of Human Essay

Advise Marcos on his rights under the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) - Essay Example (Your Rights 2008) Because the laws were rarely enforced it was unlikely that they would be prosecuted, but the risk of enforcement was there, so they were allowed to challenge it.(Your Rights 2008) Here, Macros has standing because he has already been mistreated. Thus, Macros has satisfied the first element of standing. Before Macros makes an application to the ECHR he must pursue any proceedings that he could take in the Hungarian courts that are capable of providing him with an adequate remedy for the breach of his Convention rights. Here, the Hungarian Courts found that the officers had used necessary force to contain the situation while making multiple arrests. Further, the Hungarian Courts also found that the internal inquiry conducted within the Special Anti-Terrorist Squad was adequate although no officers were criminally prosecuted. Based upon the facts provided, it appears that all remedies offered by the Hungarian courts have been exhausted. Accordingly, Macros fits into the second element of standing to file his application to the ECHR. Finally, Macros must make his application to the ECHR within six months of the conclusion of any court proceedings that he has taken in Hungary that could have provided him with a remedy or, if there were no proceedings that it was reasonable to expect Macros to take, within six months of the event which gives rise to his application. When Macros makes his application to the ECHR he will be asked to complete one of the ECHR’s application forms. However, it is not necessary to fill out one of these forms to meet the six month rule. All he need to do is to get a letter to the court within the six months setting out: 3. The facts that have given rise to the application. Marcos was sitting in a cafà © in the centre of Budapest (Hungary) when officers of the Special Anti-Terrorist Squad raided the cafà © in order to

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Miss Spider's tea party Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Miss Spider's tea party - Essay Example The ballet group itself is a non-profit entity, and its laudable programs are funded completely by donations and powered by volunteers in the main. This makes the event doubly meaningful and worthwhile, first because of the goodwill and the eminently good intentions of the group, and second because of the excellent production and the merits of the artistic show itself (Cuyahoga Valley Youth Ballet; Cuyahoga Valley Youth Ballet (b)). The story itself is straightforward, and a delight to watch on stage. Miss Spider is preceded by a reputation for eating bugs, and so has a difficult time making friends and being able to invite neighbors for tea. This is a recipe for loneliness, and the story in a way is about this loneliness and the walls that people and bugs erect among themselves, motivated by fear and impressions that may not correspond with reality. All sorts of bugs in the neighborhood resisted the charms of Miss Spider and chose to stay away, and even the ants could only stay for a short while. It took a helpless wet moth, who couldn’t escape if it wanted to, for the rest of the neighborhood to know how harmless and contrary to stereotypes Ms. Spider was. Her act of kindness towards the moth convinced them to finally stop by Miss Spider’s house and stay. There is much to the production that can be recommended for all children. The story itself is instructive with regard to how to deal with peop le in the outside world, to see without blinders and to give people a chance, and more importantly, to not be deceived by appearances. People are good and bad, and with caution and the guidance of elders, the outside world can be engaged in. On another level, the production also emphasizes the importance of friendship. This production has many hooks to the course. It is a worthwhile addition, for instance, to the library of children’s literature that can be recommended to students. That it has been staged by an organization with a

Description of policy currently under force Essay

Description of policy currently under force - Essay Example The United States National Guards are a part of the United States reserve military force.The primary main function of the National Guards is to aid the armed forces during emergency and support the state government during war.Used both by the United States air force and the armed forces, the United States National Guards are federally controlled units of the state authorities under title ten and thirty two of the United States code. Mobilized through the means of either the president order or the governor's consent, the National Guards require voluntary transfers or temporary duty assignments to get in action.According to the current policy, the National Guards are to act as a first line defense for the United States. The force is divided into small units which are spread across the length and breadth of each of the fifty states and are governed by their territorial governors. The current policy also states that in case of an emergency such as a hurricane, flood or an earth quake, th e National Guards may be pressed into active service after getting a nod from the territorial governors. National Guards can also be commissioned into active or inactive services in the federally recognized armed forces if the need rises.For this, it is imperative that the authorities get a nod from the state governors. Likewise, the National Guards may be called up to assist the Federal services to suppress invasions, rebellion or to repel a proposed armed invasion of a foreign country. Likewise, in the case of any danger against the Federal authority or the inability of the president to execute the laws of the United States with the aid of the current armed forces, the federal laws require added assistance through the means of the National Guards. At present, with special regards to the war with Iraq, wherein tens of thousands of National Guards are being dispatched to the war torn country, the country is facing acute shortage in terms of both manpower as well as recourses when it comes to dealing with natural disasters. Since the year 2003, the National Guards have left sixty four thousand pieces of equipment, which include trucks and communication equipment valued over $1.2 billion in Iraq. (Pear) (Millett and Maslowski) Environments Of The Policy Currently In Force National guards comprise one half of the US ground forces and one third of the support forces. Since September 2001, over 140,000 guard members have been mobilized; of which 113,000 are one active duty. Of these over forty percent are currently deployed in the war torn Iraq and fifty one percent are involved to aid the global war on terrorism. (United States Office of the Federal Register) The Physical Factors The main physical factors which affect the origin, development and implementation of the current policy are the physical factors. The biggest setback to the National Guard came when the organization was commissioned to active service. Here, it was a complete transition from a force which was rarely deployed to a force which was always on active duty. Likewise the sudden transition of a soldier, who was earlier deployed for a short period of time to one who had to be on active duty for at least a year, led to unprecedented stress and physical discomfort. In accordance to the present operational tempo, the unparallel physical demands led to severe health problems. The need for health promotion programs to prevent soldier injuries on and off the battle field, led to the induction of new health policies (Eaglen). The problems include- 1) Lack of medical readiness program projections based on current and future assessments 2) Conditions, which are potentially preventable but affect the mission include orthopedic (56%), internal medicine (16%) and neurological disorders (8%). 3) Lack of mobilized medical units 4) Lack of enhanced medical readiness to ensure healthy and fit medical personnel. 5) Absence of medical facilities which aid in the conservation and restoration of a soldier's health and medical

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

International Relations Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

International Relations - Research Paper Example In fact, it â€Å"refers both to a process of growing material interconnectedness as well as to the ‘idea’ or consciousness of that process† (Ravenhill 302). The purveyor or enforcer of such idea is the WTO. Although the WTO is supposedly a consensual type of organization, where the majority, which consist of the underdeveloped and developing countries, is theoretically the more powerful group, it is actually the few developed and advanced capitalist countries that are most influential in the formulation of its policies. Since its founding, the WTO has been accused of making the economic conditions of the poorer nations worse. According to Global Exchange, an international human rights advocacy organization, the WTO has made the world’s richest become richer at the expense of the poorest as it has â€Å"hastened these trends by opening up countries to foreign investment and thereby making it easier for production to go where the labor is cheapest and most easily exploited and environmental costs are low† (Top Reasons to Oppose the WTO). The WTO was established in January 1995. However, the basic principles behind it were already being implemented since 1948 through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT (World Trade Organization). ... However, there are developing countries with governments that have continued to adhere to the policies of the WTO despite the massive protests that have been held in their respective countries. Behind these are the corporations who have accumulated profits because of globalization (Berberoglu 68). Since the WTO regularly meets in order to discuss the implementation of trade liberalization, the agendas that it often tables are scrutinized by different people’s organizations. One contentious issue that has been the subject of intense protest campaigns from farmers is agricultural liberalization. The WTO calls for â€Å"the removal of exemptions for import controls and supply management regimes† (Shrybman 50). The net effect of this policy is that a less developed nation that could not compete well can be dumped with agricultural products coming from the more developed countries. This naturally puts the farmers of the said country at a grave disadvantage because of unfair competition resulting from it. With inadequate subsidy, the farming sector of the less developed country would certainly not be able counter the heavy importation. Another major criticism of the WTO is that it tends to ignore the impact of its policies on other important aspects of society. It is said that in every forum that is held by this multilateral body, â€Å"global commerce takes precedence over everything – democracy, public health, equity, the environment, food safety and more† (Wallach & Sforza 20). There are two other issues that have been consistently raised against the WTO; these are on matters of the environment and labor. When it comes to the environment, there have been calls by environmental groups to use trade sanctions as a means to pressure erring nations to comply with

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Bachelor of Business - Paper on Leadership Issues Research

Bachelor of Business - on Leadership Issues - Research Paper Example However, to be an effective leader, it is important that leaders know the boundaries of their authority. Likewise, as leaders, it is important to be able to set good examples because people tend to emulate the things that are being done by the people who are over them on the corporate ladder. Hence, the ethics of leaders come into play crucially. However, there are many interpretations of what ethics is about. Some would say that ethics is about right and wrong or about religious beliefs. Interestingly, some would say that it is about being a law abiding citizen while some would say that it is doing what is generally accepted. However, confining ethics to each of the foregoing examples may be impossible such as religion which has a very high moral standard. It may also be a problem to equate it with laws or to what is generally accepted since these may likewise deviate from what is truly ethical. Basically, ethics are about having a high standard about what is right and wrong that st ates what people ought to do. Likewise, it is also the learning process as well as the development of one’s standards of being ethical (Velasquez et al 2010). Nowadays, ethical issues pervade companies especially when there are issues divulged by employees who are unable to take in things that are going badly for the company. As such, when certain anomalies are divulged by employees or former anomalies, these become cases of whistle-blowing. It is thus important to make this distinction because it is in these cases that leaders’ ethical issues come into play since these are the things that they can directly influence. All other disclosures that are not made by employees or former employees are not cases of whistle-blowing (Sollars 2001). It is very important for leaders to ensure that issues pertaining to whistle-blowing are handle with utmost professionalism as these may easily expose the ethical standards that they posses. Hence, these will be the focus of the case i n point. What recommendations for action would you make to the senior management? Basically, the case presented a company that went from bad to worse after the initial incident of whistle-blowing that exposed major anomalies resulting to unpleasant things such as investigations and even arrests. It was an unfortunate turn that instead of having an improvement in operations, the company’s output further dropped not to mention the morale of the employees. Hence, it is important for the top management to first recognize that the business environment of today has evolved to a level that has provided a more conducive environment for whistle-blowing. The major advances in technology have tremendously improved the capability of communications enabling new channels and ways of providing and getting information in ways unimagined just a decade and a half ago. Likewise, companies must be made aware that these technological improvements have brought in a new era for businesses known as the information age effectively phasing out the industrial stage. Thus, with this new age comes a new breed of manpower known as knowledge workers. In fact, many such employees are making their way deep into the corporate world (Serrat, 2008). This only means that people nowadays know better and can communicate easier which has made disclosures of anomalies easier. Thus, it is important that the senior manage

Monday, September 23, 2019

Chelsea Training Facility Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Chelsea Training Facility - Assignment Example In addition to these, the club's first team comprising of 27 players will also be playing here. Currently they practice in Harlington on all days except when they have a match. This has to be transferred to the new site once created, to Hazelwood. Chelsea football club proposes to convert the existing golf course in Hazelwood borough into a football training academy. The academy will be the training ground for the 27 first team players in the Chelsea club. In addition to these players, the academy will embark on training youth and children from the neighbourhood schools to build them up into professional footballers. The Chelsea Football Academy will have 12 senior and grass sided grass pitches with one floodlit pitch, one all weather floodlit pitch, ancillary training areas, parking place and required landscaping. An L shaped building will also be created out of the existing one. This will provide seating for 150 spectators on the top floor and also provide for quarters for two staff in the roof space. The first team, comprising of team players aged over 21 years will be using the pitches for their continuous training. There will be a reserve team of 12 players who are in the 19 and 21 years age group. The Academy will also train a youth team comprising of youth in the ages between 17 and 19 years. ... There will also be Saturday morning training in addition to week day training in the evenings on Tuesday and Thursday. This will number to approximately 120 boys. Once Hazelwood training starts, wards undergoing training in Harlington alone will be transferred to Hazelwood for training. On Sunday mornings, there are regular U9 to U16 matches. These are currently conducted at Cobham and this would continue even after starting training at Hazelwood. There are also the Ladies teams having about 60 senior players and 50 junior players. They train generally in the Feltham Community College and in the Raynes Park High School. Matches are normally played at the Sycob Football Club in Beaconsfield. At the time of making this proposal, the Ladies teams do not have any plans of using the Hazelwood club grounds for this purpose. Factors for the Proposal The following points are observed in favour of the proposal during the analysis of the document: 1. Chelsea FC needs an academy to train and continuously build professional footballers for it. This is line with the Football Association and Football League joint statement issued, reinforcing the idea of creating academies for every professional and Football league club. 2. The Football Academies would be special development centres that will have the best of the facilities and would have to meet very high standards in terms of facilities for both players and well as staff. The centres should be capable of producing students who are not just have technical capability but would be an all round professional. The academies shall have the best coaches and the support of other professionals, viz., physiotherapists, doctors and teachers. 3. These academies shall cater to the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Crisis Diplomacy Essay Example for Free

Crisis Diplomacy Essay In 1994 Rwanda, a small central African country was put into international limelight. In a span of 100 days almost half a million of its citizens were killed, a concentrated slaughter of the Tutsi by the Hutu, a modern genocide that overwhelm anyone that bothered to care. As horrific events unfold everyday and cries for help bellow in Rwanda the international community took the back seat. We are living in an era that already witness appalling massacres beforehand but still the world stood still and left Rwanda to tend to its own woes. After the crisis in Rwanda was over the international community then took notice. Questions on how and why the killings happen arise but most importantly what could have been done to prevent it. Together with the United Nations many developed countries faced scrutiny about polices created during this crisis. This paper will look into the non-intervention policy of the Unites States during the genocide using rational actor model. The aim is to understand why the United States vehemently stood by the policy even after repeated call to intervene. Using the rational actor model this paper will try to answer the questions: What was the goal of the government about peacekeeping missions in Africa? What are the alternative responses considered and why it was abandoned? Lastly what other actions could the administration take to be able to improve the decision making during such crisis. Background of the Rwanda Crisis The Original Hutus and Tutsis Ancestors of the modern Hutus and Tutsis initially lived in symbiosis throughout the region. Some are herders of cattle while others are croppers. They form the beliefs, culture and one of the official languages, Kinya-rwanda that is still being shared by both groups until today. Before colonizers arrived society is structured based on ancestry or on allegiance to a chief (Leave none to tell). Majority of the early Rwandans are croppers who are short and broad other are herders who are tall and thin then a small number of them are foragers who are smaller that the croppers. As Rwanda emerges as a nation, power and wealth is shaped by the size of followers and count of herds respectively (Leave none to tell). Both the croppers and herders held power and wealth. In the 19th century Rwabugiri came into power and stirred Rwanda to opulence. He was an expansionist and started conquering lands with disregard whether they are croppers or herders. (Des Forges). Under his rule anyone that was conquered was labeled as Hutu meaning follower. While territories expand and wealth is accumulated the wealthier ones started to view those with lesser assets as an inferior race. Eventually the word Tutsi which formerly means cattle owner is associated with the elites and the word Hutu evolve to pertain to anyone belonging to the masses (Leave none to tell). Majority of the population during this period are Hutus while the Tutsis occupy the small nobility. However distinction between the two is flexible thus they cannot be differentiated into an ethnic group and hostility is scarce (Jones). Marriage between Hutus and Tutsis was not unheard of as well. Both the Hutus and Tutsis mold the complex hierarchy within the country. Although the Tutsis are the elites some Hutus still hold significant power over some parts of the land. Transformation of the Hutus and Tutsis By the 20th century the Germans and the Belgians arrived and colonized the land. The Germans first arrived then after the World War I the Belgians settled in Rwanda. The actions and racial assumptions of these colonizers will set ground for repressed hatred of the Hutus that will fuel the genocide. When the Belgians arrived the complex hierarchy that is pre-existing in Rwanda was viewed as troublesome to understand so they decided to change the current political structure. Based on the racial assumptions that Europeans are the superior race they decide to rule over the Rwandans and divide the nation based of assumptions common to early Europeans. Using physical features as guide they believed that the Tutsis, who are mostly tall and thin, are closely related to them in the evolution ladder therefore they are superior like Europeans. The Hutus, who are smaller and bulkier, and who look less like the colonizers are uncivilized (Jones). The Belgians then practice this bias view to withdraw power and authority to any Hutus and give preferential advantages to Tutsis in terms of politics, education, and wealth (Unit Four). To ease identification the Belgians launched a policy for Rwandans to carry identification cards that state whether they are Tutsis or Hutus. This permanent record of membership was fully accepted by the Tutsis and for years they enjoy affluences. Conversely, the Hutus collectively feel the domination and their years of oppression will swell into violence to recapture lost authority Habyarimana Regime In September 1959 the Union Nationale Rwandaise or UNAR was formed, a political party mostly comprised of the ruling Tutsi elite, to put pressure on Belgians to relinquish power to them. In response the Belgians started to support the Hutu party called Parti du Mouvement de lEmancipation Hutu or PARMEHUTU (History of a People). PARMEHUTU aim to end the monarchy rule of the Tutsi. Series of vicious killings followed where thousand of Tutsi were killed and others fled to various countries like Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda (Rwanda: How). At first the PARMEHUTU mostly targeted Tutsi officials and supporters while ordinary Tutsi are still spared. To restore order the Belgians then assimilate more Hutu in the local government (Leave none to tell). Then in 1961 with the help of local Hutu officials the PARMEHUTU won the first election with 77. 7% of the votes (Rwanda Political). From then on the PARMEHUTU hold the majority in the government they ended the monarchy by the Tutsi and establish the Hutu-led republic. On July 1, 1962 the Belgians eventually relinquish the power and awarded sovereignty to Rwandans. The PARMAHETU retained the discriminatory identity cards even after independence (Leave none to tell). However, the tables are turned; the once advantageous card for the Tutsi became their ticket to prejudice or worst death. Tutsi refugees continued to make efforts to return to Rwanda through guerilla attacks at the border they were considered by the government as rebels. The PARMAHETU then used these attacks as propaganda to promote unity among Hutus. Tutsis that are still in the country were targeted and accused of accommodating the rebels. Hostility towards the Tutsis perpetuated for years. They were subjected in constant fear for just being a Tutsi (Leave none to tell). President Gregoire Kayibanda of the First Republic even used the killings of Tutsi to keep the Hutu in the majority (History of a People). After a coup d’etat by President Kayibanda’s army chief, General Juvenal Habyarimana, the Second Republic was established (Leave none to tell). Habyarimana then institute the Mouvement Revolutionnaire Nationale pour le Developpement or MRND in 1975. Rwanda then was transformed into a single-party state were all citizens are automatic members. Habyarimana manage to remain in power until his death in 1994 through manipulation of the elections where he is the sole candidate (Rwanda Political). For years President Habyarimana and his cronies reap the reward of being the only one in power. Inevitably a call for change among opposition Hutu compels President Habyarimana to let opposition parties to organize. In 1991 several parties emerge, the significant parties are: Mouvement Democratique Republicain/ Democratic Republican Movement/MDR, Parti Liberal/Liberal Party/PL, Parti Social Democrate/Democratic and Socialist Party/PSD, Parti Democrate Chretien/ Democratic Christian Party/PDC, and the Coalition pour la Defense de la Republique/ Coalition for the Defense of the Republic/CDR (Leave none to tell). These parties will vital roles during and after the genocide. The RPF From President Gregoire Kayibanda of the First Republic to President Major General Juvenal Habyarimana of the Second Republic the Tutsi continued to suffer from bigotry. Both these presidents even used the killing of Tutsis as a mean to promote solidarity among Hutus (Leave none to tell). Amidst all of the aggression towards the Tutsi the Tutsi refugees in Uganda formed the Rwandese Patriotic Front or RPF, a guerrilla organization aimed to return the refugees to Rwanda. It was initially a peaceful movement seeking diplomatic resolution to the refugee problem (History of a People). The RPF made some promising advancement in resolving the problem. Three joint meetings with Uganda and the commission created by President Habyarimana transpired from 1989 to July1990 (Leave none to tell). However, negotiations ended when the RPF decided to invade Rwanda on October 1990 not only to re-establish the refugees but to overthrow the dictatorship of Habyarimana. The initial attack of the RPF was used by the radical Hutus to incite disdain towards Tutsis. President Habyarimana also used the invasion as a black propaganda to rebuild his waning reputation. (Rwanda: How). To win back support he promulgated the RPF as the common adversary of the nation (Unit Four). Retaliations between Hutu and the RPF shaped the civil war that lasted for three years. Pressure from the international community prompted Habyarimana in agreeing to a mediated peace talk. And on August 4th, 1993 the Arusha Peace Agreement was signed in Arusha, Tanzania. The agreement aim to end the civil war and it stipulates the following accords: formation of the rule of law, power-sharing, repatriation of refugees, and the merging of MDR and RPF armies. (History of a People). The Arusha Peace Agreement and the UNAMIR The Arusha Peace Agreement sought to end the civil war in Rwanda. Its protocols are essential in achieving lasting peace in Rwanda. It was also agreed that within 37 days after the signing of the agreement a broad-based transitional government or BBTG and national assembly will be established. The transition period was expected to last up to 22 months after which elections will take place (History of a People; Dallaire Poulin 66). To help in the implementation of the agreement on October 1993 the Security Council of the United Nations invokes resolution 872 (1993) and organized the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda or UNAMIR. It authorized 2,500 peacekeeping forces (Dallaire Poulin 66) to preserve the fragile cease-fire between the MRND and RPF after the agreement. The UNAMIR was initially headed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Rwanda Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh of Cameroon then succeeded by Shaharyar M. Khan of Pakistan. Two Canadian military officers served as Force Commander: Major-General Romeo A. Dallaire 1993-1994 followed by Major-General Guy Tousignant after them Brigadier-General Shiva Kumar of Pakistan took over the post until 1996 (United Nations Assist; Unamir). Initial directives of the UNAMIR are: securing the capital city of Kigali; uphold the cease-fire treaty; observe activities during the BBTG until the elections; help in clearing mines; and assist in synchronization of humanitarian assistance activities together with relief operations (Unasog). To start off the mission the UN then call for volunteers but only Belgium and Bangladesh heeded the call. The combine force was about 800 troops (Unamir:Background) it was deployed and it arrived in Kigali on December 1993 (United Nations Assist). However, it took another five months before the 2,500 authorized forced was reached (Unamir:Background). In the report of the Secretary-General by the end of December he stated that most parts of phase 1 are already fulfilled. Despite some uncompromising standpoint between parties the cease fire holds and MRND and RPF continued to be amiable towards one another. Major-General Dallaire then wanted to proceed with plans in phase 2 (United Nations Assist). On January 1994 the BBTG and the National Assembly was expected to be put into place but it never materialize. The failure of the MRND, RPF and other political parties to agree on some issues as well as selection of their respective members belated further implementation of the Arusha Agreement. Due to this the phase 1 of the mission was not completed and UNAMIR cannot proceed into phase 2 (United Nations Assist). The UNAMIR continued to face setback in completing its mandate. As the situation in Rwanda continued to intensify it will go through numerous adjustments in its mandate from the time of the genocide until the withdrawal of the mission in 1996 (United Nations Assist). Genocide Many Hutu radicals do not accept the Arusha Agreement since they do not want to share power with the Tutsi. Also the military was alarmed of the provision to merge the MRND and RPF forces. Many of them fear the merger will discharge them from the military service. Since a military career entails power and privilege many of the high-level officials and military personnel are not willing to give it up (Leave none to tell). As early as 1992 the radicals have already premeditated the eradication of the Tutsi to resolve the growing political problem in Rwanda (Jones). The catalyst for the genocide happened on April 1994 when the plane carrying President Habyarimana and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi was shot down while trying to land in Kigali. Perpetrators of the assassination are still unknown until today. But ensuing chaos that followed tattooed into the mind of hearts of the international community. Due to the demise of the President Habyarimana, Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana, became the head of state (Power). Major-General Dallaire was alarmed about the news since Prime Minister Uwilingiyimana is a representative from the opposition party MDR (Leave none to tell). A known moderate Hutu that opposed President Habyarimana. Since the general knew beforehand, that plans to exterminate Tutsi and moderate Hutu are happening in the background, he feared for Uwilingiyimana life (Power). Dallaire send 10 Belgian UNAMIR peacekeepers to protect her but within day they were all killed by the radical Hutu. These initials events escalate to the systematic killings of over a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. No one was spared woman, men, and even children were mercilessly hacked by machetes. It was coordinate by the top Hutu authorities in the country (Rwanda: How). But most of the killings were executed by the ordinary people. The killing spree will continue for days thousands of terrified Tutsi call for help but none arrive. Individual countries did send out missions to Rwanda but only to extract their own citizens. The UNAMIR was not able to offer much help as well since engaging the radical Hutu is not part of its mandate (Power). With no help in sight the Tutsi are left like sitting ducks to the Hutus who hunted them to extinction. The Hutus almost succeeded but on July 1994 the RPF was able to capture Kigali and drove the radical elements to either Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo, or Tanzania. The genocide finally ended but it leaves a lasting impression to every Hutu and Tutsi alike. Analysis It was March 1998, four years after the genocide, when President Bill Clinton issued the so called Clinton Apology. He addressed the survivors of the genocide and express regret that the United States was not able to do more to help Rwanda. Upon hearing the emotional apology anyone without background knowledge of events could construed that the United States did help but it was just not enough (Power). However policies of the United States towards the incident were no help to Rwandans. The primary policy of no intervention may have caused thousands of lives that could have been saved if only help was sent. Another Somalia Before the wake of the Rwanda genocide the United States was traumatized by the events the happen in the intervention in Somalia. The humanitarian mission seemed to be uncomplicated: to restore peace and bring food to the famine stricken country. But as the mission progress it became clear that dealing with the warlords could eventually bring the peace in the land. When the American forces confronted Mohammed Farah Aideed, the most powerful warlord, the result was the death of 18 soldiers. The price to pay for the intervention was crystal clear and the troops were summoned back home (Utley). From then on the United States is not willing to pay that price again (Rwanda: the Preventable). When the news of the genocide hit the international community many countries feel that an action should be taken as early as possible but the Unites States was not ecstatic to help right away. The US also did not persuade the UN to take action. Two things came in mind: the need for the UN to sanction another humanitarian force and the foreseeable failure of that mission which will eventually be withdrawn. This is Somalia all over again (Ferroggiaro). The goal of the Clinton administration is to avoid another Somalia and staying away from the Rwanda crisis was the clear choice to achieve this goal. Observers argued that the oblivious attitude of the US toward the genocide was due to the fact that Rwanda holds no economic or strategic interest to the US (Caroll). In defense the administration dismissed this notion. They believe the UN will lose more once another humanitarian mission fail than not doing any action (Power). Alternative actions Although the policy to shun away from the Rwanda crisis was the surmounting choice other alternatives was presented on how to deal with the crisis. One proposed alternative that is in line with the goal of no military intervention is the prevention of arms importation to Rwanda. The proposal came from senator Paul Simon and senator James Jeffords (Ferroggiaro). However this proposal is ineffective since majority of the weapons used in the genocide are ordinary farming tools already available to the Hutu, one good example is the machete (Power). Another option is to thwart the operation of the Radio-Television libre des mille collines. It is a government owned radio station infamous for its anti-Tutsi propaganda (Rwanda: The Preventable). The radio station assisted the genocide by continuing to broadcast hate towards the Tutsi even letting the mob know where Tutsis could be found and encourage the mob to pursue and kill the Tutsi. Since the radio station was owned by the Hutu dominated government it is easy to instill a good image for the Hutus. The lack of other forms of media, mainly because the government has monopoly of everything, made the broadcast of the radio as the ultimate truth (Braunshweig). Lieutenant Colonel Tony Marley, the U. S. military liaison to the Arusha Agreement, proposed three courses of action: demolish the radio’s antenna, contradict the hate campaign by broadcasting a call to stop the killing, and just distort the radio’s broadcast. But this alternative was again deemed as ineffective and costly to implement. According to the Pentagon the terrain in Rwanda will diminish the capability of the jamming device. Also the total cost to transport and setup the device will be excessive (Power). Although all of these directives are indirect intervention and still in line with the goal none were considered as a course of action. The arms restriction does seem to be ineffective since as shown by the media most of the killers are carrying machetes. However the attempt to stop hate broadcast could have made a difference in the death toll. It might not stop the war but it could help in saving lives of specially those specifically targeted by the Hutu. It was clear however that to stop the war the military will be needed. This action would be a direct contradiction to the goal of not repeating the failure of Somalia. The other alternatives on the other hand are inefficient and ineffective to help alleviate the situation. In the end the United State made a choice not to intervene with the internal affair of Rwanda. As presented the choice was the most rational to be able to keep the national interest of the country. The model used was able to answer the question why did the United States choose this policy and was able to give an insight to events that lead to that decision. In one perspective this decision was the better option. Since this crisis do not have any effect to national security. It is best that resources are allocated to more pressing matters. As callous as it might sound if ever the Hutus were successful in wiping out the Tutsi it will have no effect to the national interest of the United States. But on the other hand, using moral judgment, one is compelled to help those who are in need. However one must take into consideration on how far should we help. Sending military forces to intervene might be able to help put the radical elements at bay but this will not fully achieve the peace that Rwanda direly need. It can only be resolved by Rwandans themselves. The main reason for the violence was the deeply rooted hatred towards one another. With no distinct features to separate the Tutsi from a Hutu anymore, the realization that they are one will be the first step of the Rwandans to progress. References Carroll, Rory. â€Å"US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide†. The Guardian. 31 Mar 2004. Guardian News and Media Limited. 15 May 2008. http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2004/mar/31/usa. rwanda Braunshweig, Jessica. â€Å"Analysis: Rwanda war debates medias role†. Union Press International. 21 Deb 2007. United Press International. 15 May 2008. http://www. upi. com/International_Intelligence/Analysis/2007/02/21/analysis_rwanda_war_debates_medias_role/4186/print_view/ Dallaire, R and Poulin, B. â€Å"UNAMIR Mission to Rwanda†. Joint Force Quarterly. 1995: 66-71. Des Forges, Alison. â€Å"When a Foreign Country Rebels: The Ideology and Practice of War in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Rwanda. † Symposium on Warfare and Society in Africa. (1990). Ferroggiaro, William. â€Å"The U. S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994†. The National Security Archive. 24 Mar 2004. National Security Archive. 15 May 2008 http://www. gwu. edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB117/index. htm#used Utley, Garrick. â€Å"Crossing the line†. CNN. 15 May 2008. http://www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/2000/democracy/bigger. picture/stories/intervention/ â€Å"History of a People†. Official Website of the Government of Rwanda. 14 May 2008. http://www. gov. rw/government/historyf. html Jones, Adam. â€Å"Case Study: Genocide in Rwanda, 1994†. Gendercide Watch. 14 May 2008. http://www. gendercide. org/case_rwanda. html#top â€Å"Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda†. Human Rights Watch. Mar 1999. 14 May 2008. http://www. hrw. org/reports/1999/rwanda/Geno1-3-09. htm Power, Samantha. â€Å"Bystanders to Genocide†. theAtlantic. com. Sep 2001. Atlantic Monthly. 15 May 2008. http://www. theatlantic. com/doc/200109/power-genocide/3 â€Å"Rwanda: How the genocide happened†. BBC News. 1 Apr 2004. BBC. 14 May 2008. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230. stm â€Å"Rwanda Political parties†. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Advameg Inc. 14 May 2008. http://www. nationsencyclopedia. com/Africa/Rwanda-POLITICAL-PARTIES. html â€Å"Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide†. ReliefWeb. 7 Jul 2000. Organisation for African Unity (OAU). 15 May 2008. http://www. reliefweb. int/rw/rwb. nsf/db900sid/OCHA-64DEEY? OpenDocument â€Å"UNAMIR: Background†. United Nations. 15 May 2008. http://www. un. org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamirS. htm â€Å"UNASOG†. United Nations. 15 May 2008. http://www. un. org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamirM. htm â€Å"UNITED NATIONS ASSISTANCE MISSION FOR RWANDA†. George Mason University.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Tojo World War II

Tojo World War II Tojo World War II Project Throughout World War II many important individuals have played pivotal roles in the war. These individuals have included Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany and Winston Churchill of Great Britain. But in the Pacific Theater of World War II, Hideki Tojo of Japan played a very important role in World War II as well. Tojo was important in World War II because he authorized many crucial events in the war, like the bombing of Pearl Harobr and the Battle of Midway. Hideki was born in Tokyo, Japan on December 30, 1884 and came from a family of samurai decent. His father was an accomplished general who enrolled Tojo in the Military Academy and the Army College. After Tojo graduated in 1924, he was able to achieve many accomplishments. His achievements included being a military attachà © in Switzerland and teaching at the Army Staff College. Within the military circle Tojo was known as the Razor; a reputation Tojo received for his ability to make quick and sharp decisions. But one of his biggest achievements before World War II was his arrest of the main conspirators of the February 26 incident. The February 26 incident was an attempted coup detat of the Japanese government. The reasoning behind this coup detat was that many of the younger officers in the Japanese military felt there was major corruption and poverty in the rural areas. And they believed the solution was to remove some of the officials in the government. Some of their targets included Keisuke Okada, who was the prime minister of Japan during the time of the incident. As well as Makino Nobuaki, who was in good relations with Emperor Hirohito. The conspirators of the February 26 incident believed by removing people like Nobuaki out of government, then the problems in Japan would be solved. However Tojo and other military members against the coup were able to arrest many of the conspirators and suppress the rebellion. As a result Tojo was promoted to a Chief of Staff Position and by 1929; Tojo had become commander of the illustrious First Infantry Regiment. Within Tojo, he had extreme right wing views and believed in an aggressive foreign policy. Thus it was natural for Tojo to support military actions such as the 1931 invasion of Manchuria and the Second Sino-Japanese War. The invasion of Manchuria consisted of Manchuria as well as Korea under Japanese control. Japan also instituted a puppet government in Manchuria called Manchuko, with Puyi as Manchukos regent. While the Second Sino Japanese War was a result of Japans imperialist policy to control China and obtain Chinas raw material and other resources. Although both wars displayed the military might of Japan, it also produced dire consequences. Many of the Chinese were killed and Japan was panned by the international community. Especially from the League of Nations, who condemned Japans military aggression, thus pushing Japan to leave the League of Nations. Tojo, like many of the Japanese people at the time, held great admiration for the dictators in Europe, such as Hitler and Mussolini. Tojo especially respected Hitler, whom Tojo admired for his passion and toughness. Japans respect toward the European dictators was exemplified when Japan signed the Tripartite Pact: a pact that created a mutual alliance between Italy, Germany, and Japan. However Japans respect toward the European dictators was not shared with the United States. Instead many Japanese people like Tojo perceived the Americans to be self indulgent, lazy and without morals. This was especially evidenced during Tojos trip to the United States as a military attachà ©. During the trip, Tojo perceived the Americans to be lacking the spiritual strength and dedication of the Japanese. Perhaps through this attitude toward the Americans and among other factors did it help persuade Tojo to authorize an attack on Pearl Harbor. When by Emperor Hirohito appointed Tojo to be the Prime Minister, Tojo believed that war with the United States was inevitable and Japan needed to be prepared for such a war. He thought this way because tensions between Japan and the United States were already high. This was due to events such as Japans invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and their continuing expansion toward China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In an attempt to stop Japans military aggression, the United placed an embargo on oil exports to Japan. The embargo implanted by the United States was proven to have a negative effect toward Japan because United States supplied many of Japans oil exports, and Japan needed vast amounts of oil to fuel their military expansion. And if Japan were to continue conquering further into Asia, Tojo and many military commanders were sure they would be in a war with the United States. As a way to prevent a war with the United States, an attack on Pearl Harbor seemed to be solution. After all Tojo and many Japanese commanders believed the Pearl Harbor plan would achieve three things. First of all through the plan, United States would lose many of its valuable ships, therefore preventing the U.S. from interfering with Japans naval interest. Second, the Pearl Harbor attack would give Japan time to strengthen its position and reinforce their navy. Lastly, the Pearl Harbor bombings would lower United States morale and give Japan the chance to dominate the Southeast Asia region. However after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, quite the contrary occurred. The United States congress immediately declared war on the empire of Japan and America began to mobilize its society toward an all out war. As it became evident that the United States would fight Japan in World War II, Tojo began to lead the empire of Japan toward many battles in the Pacific with the United States. At first it seemed Japan was victorious against their enemies as they were able to gain various territories in the Pacific. Territories that Japan conquered included Guam, the Wake Islands, Marianas, and many others. But their numerous victories were especially highlighted by the Battle of the Philippines. The Battle of the Philippines was an invasion conducted by the Japanese forces and its sole purpose was to gain raw materials in the nearby areas. The defending units of the Phillipines were a combined force of American and Filipino soldiers. Despite the defending troops having more men then Japan in the battle, they were otherwise at a disadvantage. Japan was using their best troops and equipment for the battle, while the American/Filipino soldiers were poorly trained and equipped. As a result the Philippin es became a part of Japan, and the Allied soldiers that did survive suffered harsh treatment from the Japanese. The Japanese punished the soldiers with atrocities such as the Bataan Death March. The Battaan Death March was a march of about 76,000 prisoners, marching from the Bataan peninsula to war prison camps. During the march the Japanese often beat the soldiers and nourishments like food were purposely kept away from the prisoners. Physical abuse such as rape, beheading, and bayonet piercing were common throughout the march. But despite the momentum Japan seemed to be reaching in the Pacific, they came to an abrupt halt during the Battle of Midway. The Battle of Midway was a decisive battle fought between the United States and Japan. In the battle Japan wanted to eliminate United States as a power in the Pacific theatre of World War II. Japan hoped a victory on Midway would convince the United States to end its operations in the Pacific and give the advantage Japan needed to dominate the other countries in East Asia. But during the Battle of Midway, the U.S. Navy were able to surprise the Japanese invasion fleet and score a resounding victory. The Navy was able to sink all four of Japans aircraft carriers while only three of their own carriers were sunk. After the Battle of Midway, Tojos reputation within Japan began to deteriorate as Japan began to suffer many defeats against the United States. These defeats have included battles such as the Battle of Iwo Jima. In the Battle of Iwo Jima, the United States planned to capture the island as a landing place for damaged bombers coming back from Japan. During the battle the U.S. marines suffered casualties around 20, 000 people. The Japanese that were left on the island died from the battle or by commit suicide. Many of the Japanese killed themselves because they thought the Americans were barbarous and would treat them terribly. In reality, the Americans treated the Japanese well and even offered them nourishments like water. Finally after the fall of Saipan in 1944, Tojo was dismissed as prime minister and maintained a low profile. But soon after Japans surrender in 1945, Tojos name began to reappear into the spotlight. It was because General Douglas Macarthur ordered the arrest of alleged war criminals which included Hideki Tojo. As a result many news reporters and photographers surrounded Tojos house, preventing Tojos chance to escape. Once the American forces finally arrived to Tojos house, Tojo shot himself in the chest as an attempt of suicide. Although Tojo intended to end his life by shooting his heart, he ended up shooting into his stomach and failed to kill himself. Tojo was then arrested and had an emergency surgery in a U.S. Army Hospital. Later on, Tojo would be tried by Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal for his war crimes during World War II. Tojo would be found guilty of crimes such as antagonizing war with the United States and the deaths of millions in the Eastern Asia region. As punishment Tojo would be sentenced to death. Tojo would finally be executed by hanging on December 2, 1948. Overall Tojo played a important role in World War II because he would lead many crucial events in the war. An example would be Tojos authorization of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. When the Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor, many of the ships that belonged to the United States were destroyed. Most of all battleships were heavily targeted because they were highly valued during this time period. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was a crucial event because it immediately switched the mindset of the American people at the time. Before the Pearl Harbor attacks, many Americans preferred an Isolationist policy of not being involved in the affairs of other countries. But because of the attack, the isolationist agenda was suddenly dropped and the United States suddenly joined forces with the Allies to fight the Japanese and the Axis Powers. Thus the authorization of the Pearl Harbor Bombing would be crucial to World War II because it would bring in one of the biggest players in the war: The United States of America. Another important event Tojo lead was the Battle of Midway. In this battle Japan wanted to eliminate United States as a power in the Pacific theatre of World War II. Japan hoped a victory on Midway would convince the United States to end its operations in the Pacific and give the advantage Japan needed to dominate the other countries in East Asia. The Battle of Midway was proven to be important because the battle proved itself to be a halt to the victories Japan held in the war. Before the Battle of Midway, the empire of Japan had a strung of victories in battles like the Battle of the Phillipines. But once the Americans defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Midway, Japan began to lose many battles afterwards. These battles have included historic events such as the Battle of Okinawa and Iwo Jima. Because of the continuing losses Japan began to suffer after the Battle of Midway, United States began to gain momentum and eventually end World War II in the Pacific. In conclusion Hideki Tojo has played a very important role in World War II, as it is evidenced through many of the crucial events that Tojo initiated. These events have included the Pearl Harbor attacks and the Battle of Midway. Although in Tojo is not as notorious as Hitler is in Europ, Tojo has an ominous presence within many countries in Asia. It was through the many crucial events Tojo authorized like The Battle of the Phillipipnes that made Tojo notorious there. Therefore through the many pivotal events Tojo conjured, Tojo proves himself to be a very important figure in World War II. Bibliography Browne, Courtney. Tojo, the last banzai. New York City: Penguin Books, 1998. Print. A detailed spectrum into the life of Tojo especially during his role in World War II Hideki Tojo. ABC CLIO. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2010. . Hideki Tojo. Spartacuz Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2010. . Hideki Tojos Biography History of World War II: Origins and Outbreak. N.p.: Marshall Cavendish, n.d. Print. Tojo was behind the Japanese Pearl Harbor Bombing Kamikazes. ABC CLIO. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2010. . Kamikazes were encouraged by Tojo Pearl Harbor. ABC-CLIO:World History Modern Era. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2010. . Pearl Harbor bombings

Thursday, September 19, 2019

William Shakespeare :: Essays Papers

William Shakespeare Shakespeare was born in a small English town called Stratford, Avon in 1564. During his lifetime, he composed 37 plays, which are still being performed all around the world. At the age of 18, he married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. Anne delivered their first child, Susanna, a few short months later. In early 1585, Anne gave birth to twins, a girl Judith and a boy Hamnet. Tragically, Hamnet died at the age of 11 in 1596. Little is known about Shakespeare's life in the late 1580s. In the 1590s, he had began writing plays. Shakespeare became a member of a theater groupe called Lord Chamberlain's Men, and they performed together in front of nobles anand royalty. His early plays include: Henry VI, Richard III, The Comedy of Errors, Titus Andronicus, The Taming of the Shrew, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Love's Labor's Lost, and Romeo and Juliet. His later plays include: Richard II, A MidsummerNight's Dream, King John, The Merchant of Venice, Henry IV, Much Ado About Nothing, Henry V, Julius Caesar, As YouLike It, and Twelfth Night, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Antony and Cleopatra. During the 1590s, Shakespeare became famous and gained a great deal of wealth. He bought two very expensive houses in Stratford. From 1592 to 1594, Shakespeare wrote many poems, as the theaters were shut down to stop the spread of the plague that killed thousands of people at the time. In 1599 "The Globe" theater was built. One half of the interest in this famous public playhouse went to the theater patron family, the Burbages. But the other half was divided among five actor-sharers, and Shakespeare was one of them. The Globe was rebuilt in 1614 after a fire and the theater was used till 1644. Historians have gathered enough evidence for an authentic re-creation of Shakespeare's theatre. The new, rebuilt, Globe Theater of the 1990s is only yards away from where the original Globe stood. In 1603, King James VI came to England's throne. He loved the theater and issued a license to the Chamberlain's Men, giving them the title "The Kings Men.

Perrault and Robinson Versions of Puss in Boots :: Compare Contrast Puss Boots Essays

Perrault and Robinson Versions of Puss in Boots Puss in Boots, like many folk and fairy tales is found in varying versions of the same story. Two of the many versions of this tale which are still told today are the classic version by Charles Perrault and one retold by Harry Robinson, an Okanagan Native Storyteller. Robinson's version was recorded and then transcribed and may be found in 'Write It On Your Heart - The Epic World of an Okanagan Storyteller.' This paper will examine and compare the content of both these tales with regards to plot and attempt to explain why the differences and similarities occur with regards to characters and places. Though both versions share a common goal of assuring a good life for the son who inherits the cat, the reasons vary considerably from version to version. In Perrault's tale, the son is destitute and the cat sets out to ensure his master's survival and comfort. Robinson's version, on the other hand, portraits a cat that seeks to right a wrong and return to his master that which was stolen from his family. A significant difference between the two tales is the number of events that take place. The openings to these two tales are very different from one another. In Perrault's tale, the father is already dead and the children are about to split their meagre inheritance: a mill, an ass and one cat. Robinson launches instead into an extended preamble identifying the story to be told along with some pertinent facts concerning its source. He identifies its source as being non- Native. "This is white people stories." (Robinson, 282) Unlike Perrault's poor miller, Robinson's father figure is identified as a well-to-do rancher with lots of cattle, several horses and many acres of cultivated fields. In fact, the farming operation is so large that there are many farmhands to tend to the various tasks (Robinson, 283). The father is very much alive and continues to be an integral part of the story for one third of the tale. Perrault's sequence of events is compact and straightforward. Once the sons have divided the assets, the two oldest siblings are removed from the tale. The cat requests some boots and a bag and sets off to provide for his master. Upon snagging each day's catch, he presents it to the king as a gift from his master whom he dubs the Marquis of Carabas.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

My Philosophy of Education Essay -- Philosophy on Teaching Statement

Philosophy of Education One characteristic of a good teacher is a sound philosophy of education. This will ensure the readiness of the teacher in the classroom setting. The philosophy should be thought out with care and contain concrete ideas concerning several aspects of education. My philosophy of education contains my view about: the nature of students, the nature of knowledge, the purpose of public education, teaching methods, and curriculum. People have many different views about the nature of students. Like Rousseau, I feel that students are neither good nor evil. The situations they encounter in their everyday lives shape the way they behave and the person they become. The nature of students isn’t always shaped by money or social status. For example, a poor student may grow up to set a good example for society. They may secure a good position at a successful job regardless of social class. On the other hand, a socially affluent student may grow up and become a criminal. Experiences determine which path every student will take. Students can choose to make the best of their circumstances or let these circumstances control their fate. Children from single parent homes can choose to let their situation be an excuse for lack of progress, or they can choose not to let it stand in their way. I feel that circumstances such as being from a single parent home or losing a parent aren’t sufficient reasons n ot to succeed. Some students may choose to use them as such, but in reality, these are not excuses at all. Rousseau felt that children should only be exposed to the good experiences. In my opinion, this may make the child weak and leave him or her to deal with later life events. I also agree with Rousseau... ...cular career choices. However, all students should have a general understanding of basic scientific processes. Some everyday items can be created through basic scientific knowledge. Fire extinguishers can be created rather quickly if needed for a small emergency. Giving a plant the appropriate proportions of water, sunlight, and fertilizer can be assessed through a basic understanding of some scientific principles. Teachers have many responsibilities to themselves and their students. They are responsible for the knowledge their students gain and sometimes the paths they take. A teacher can â€Å"make or break† a student. Students will respect a good teacher and admire them. They are willing to learn from a good teacher. A sound philosophy and a knowledge of what the teacher expects from his or her self is a step in the right direction with regard to a career.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

European effect on American-Indian cultures and religion in the 17th century Essay

The historical emergence of Europeans during the 17th century was synonymous to providing fundamental influence to the American- Indian and especially the New England. This was evidence of the religious rejuvenation that went across to these cultures as affected by the Europeans. Historically, the early European missionaries brought quite a broad diversity of activity in the eastern parts of North America as at 17th century. However, New England was perhaps the central point with which such influence was mostly affected. This was from the long activity of religious autonomy campaign by the European with the Puritans who wanted to make a win to the Massachusetts, Wampanoags, the Nipmucks, and also the New France. Elsewhere, the Jesuits were in their dreary efforts of making a conversion to the nation of Huron. From the encounters of evaluation promulgated from these two races of religious encounters, it is passively implied that the European missionaries had a substantial colonial influence and expansion across the broad analysis of the European colony. This also led to an influential changes in the approach mechanism in which the Europeans through the French Jesuits as well as the English Puritans undertook to ignite religious influence in India. 1 Though the religious development triggered to the New England by the Europeans in the 17th century have largely been outspoken by many scholars, Bruce Trigger came in the 18th century to reshape the phenomenal dispensation as prototyped by many old scholars. This is from the new findings in the fundamental relationship between Jesuit-Huron in the Indians of the New England. Socio-economically, New England had its settlement based on primary societal independence and families who were middle farmers. They had an adherence to a radical state of nominal accreditation where their colonial autobiography was defined by the voluntaristic Puritanism to their conceptual purposes. Historically, the seventeenth century European missionaries are credited to the creation of the more Godly community for the American Indian in New England. This is exampled by the protestation by the militant European groups in the Europe which sensitized a harmonious state of living for the people with a call for one another’s Godly relationship and in pursuit of the nature laws. 1 However, the epochs of the people embracing Christianity was never a simple activity for the Indians who disagreed of the hefty Christianity exhortations by the European missionaries. However, their will to embracing Christianity would only be subject voted by the religious development into Christianity of such ordinary people within the Indians population in England. This culture was rigidly bound to the people and that 90% of the total population in Massachusetts were largely obliged to such exemplary life led by the ordinary settlers. However, from 1616-1619, Wampanoag Indians started providing radical changes to their religious autonomy to start giving into a greater depth of the Christianity philosophies and teachings brought by the Europeans. 2 The religious divine-ship of the American-Indians in the 17th century was credited to the worshipping of animals. However, the coming in of the European missionaries in the spread of Christianity was a benchmark in support for a revolution and the long held system of religious sacrifice by the people. The conception and religious importance held on animals as their gods also implies the benchmark and the stepping-stone for the start of King Philip War in the 17th century. To the American-Indians, animals were important source religious sanctity. Accordingly, the domestication of pigs and also cattle was a big historical malady in shaping the religious outcast and the believes of the Indians in the New England by the 17th century. The effect of these domesticated animals did not only provide change in environmental conception where the other animals were hunted and killed above been moved in the forests to provide a humble environment for the pigs and also cows to adequately graze. The religious conception of these people in New England before the Europeans intervention in the 17th century was defined in parametric measures of the domesticated animals. These animals brought exorbitant changes to the land and its resource environment. Elsewhere, they had a great religious impact where the people’s minds, hearts and also their behavior changed considerably with the effect of the broad array of the effect brought by animals. Animals had a long held spiritual endowment. They provided sanctification to the people when they consumed them. However, these were traditions whose effect was to readily be uprooted by the incoming of the Europeans. Â  The American-Indians in New England by 17th century had a description of Manitou for many animals such as foxes, deer, rabbits and the bears. New England had a great religious believe and adoration in which they described the nominal deities to even take the animal forms. They therefore had various adorns to various symbolic images by certain animals or even specific animal body part. Animals had a preferential significance of power and a brim of ornamental conception which netted the religious autonomy of the Indians in the New England in 17th century. In their folklores as well as Christian cosmologies, animals had a great figuration. For example, the Christ crucifixion blood was commemorated by the red breasts of the robin. Elsewhere, bad luck was signified by crows as well as black cats. Again, the disturbing portents to the death were implied by the ravens, owls and pigeons. A change in weather was fundamentally depicted by swallows, dogs and pigs. 3 The pre-emergence of the Europeans in New England therefore was a companionate imagery of a long implied perception which was in the nature proclaimed by animals. The regular interaction with the animals by the Americans Indians was therefore allied to developing fortunes of human expectations in the correspondence of the various behavioral conceptions that were in these animals. Due to the religious implication and relationship with animals by these people, they had a greater diversity of imminent relationship with the animals than on a divine being. This is perhaps the reason behind their short run rejection of the Christianity by the European missionaries in the 17th century. The emergence of these Europeans was preaching on the believe in a divine supernatural being who was only implied through mere religious believe and adoration. To them, a believe in such a being operating beyond the framework of the physical environment was only a mythological imagery and could not act to provide such a strong religious and godly foundation to what they had on animals. To the Europeans, a great transplantation of civilization echoed in New England. This was a formal compound of change in the speech formalities of the old word, religious and also politics. The nature of the New England is historically described as getting its fundamental shape from the influence of the old world shape by the Europeans. Through their implications, civilization and renaissance which was characterized by change in the religious, political and economic backgrounds was now changing to capture more coherent status of living in New England. The emergence of Europeans in the New England was a concise drive to reformation where the ties bound by the pilgrim colonial was now to be abandoned. This was the foremost trend which fostered great sigh of changing New England primitivism. It was the impact of the shaping tool of protestant revolution hinged to the old and native European revolters that entered the New England. 8 The fatal implications of the Europeans in the England were the revolutionary landmark of renaissance which saw various structures including religious and political autonomy. The surging Europeans in New England brought a great drive of religious awakening. They highly helped to break down the ties of the effect of colonization entrenched to many godly doctrines than a fundamental pursuit of economic autonomy. The so called the English Puritans were the injecting power in which the Indians got a favorable renaissance reshaping that even provided a better room for expansion into the broad old world’s system of identity. To the Europeans, waging spiritual life to the Indians in the New England was perhaps the most important go ahead step which was even to help see the state in a changing periphery. The intention of European missionary in New England was to transplant a divine worship system of Christianity which would capture various fundamental aspects such as praying, self studying as well as struggling against various remote evil inclinations to the society. The essence of evangelism to the American-Indians was to provide new grounds of spiritual conceptions on the God’s sovereignty in which it was seen as a tool for absconding the dogmatism fed to the traditional society of the medieval traditions. The essence of been a protestant was to move as per the codes of absolute standards and sovereignty as promulgated by the will of the God and not the dogmatic apprehension of false gods held by the Indians in worshipping animals. In a light spot, the religious awakening in believe of God among these people came into growth in the mid 1630’s. This was a revolution and renaissance adjudication which was perhaps rejuvenating the traditionalism and the religious backwardness operating within the societal structures of American Indians. Basically, the European Puritans had a lot of religious conceptions to pass over to the people. At the late 1930’s the New England old world’s conceptions were now changing with the people developing a mysterious imagery and preconception of the divine God. The people were developing an essence of humanity build on will of immanent God. There was a revolution adversity in believe of such a supernatural being which even led to changing structures of the societal imagery to incorporate to a greater depth a mysterious preoccupation and believe of a wonderful God. The teaching of the puritans about God was that He was compelled of love with a low preoccupation of vengeance as well as cruelty. The teachings by the European missionaries about God were standing to develop a fundamental strength. The American-Indians grasped the immanent sovereignty of such a God which gave them a special accord providence. The basic concept that would however draw them away from the will of such a divine God was the effects of sins which were the activities done by them and went against the will of this God. The emergence of Christianity in New England was however compounded by the influence of secular concerns. The people had precepts and contributions into farming home-building, governance, practicing folks as well as trading. With the new strength of absorbing a believe in God, humans contentment through Godly pleasure was now beginning to be a precious preoccupation amongst a diverse outlay of sources of pleasure. They turned to worshipping such vengeful God with deep characteristics of personal tenderness. With the changing believe and imageries on God, the people were starting to observe other structures such as economy and also state governance as facets proclaimed by the command and will of God. This engineered revolutionary autonomy in both civil as well as civil factors within the New England. Through this outlay, the Indians started to reshape their thinking about the conception on the God’s will for the state of governance and state leadership as shadowed to strong believers. From this new development in the societal conception, the inhabitants of Massachusetts Bay had the establishment of a theocratic site for Puritans which would even help to strengthening the spread and development of Christianity within the community at a faster status. This was the first trading corporation held in England and whose administration was only alleged to specific personalities proclaimed of having a strong hood of religious authority. However in 1645, political crisis developed to subdivide the New England into two. Those who proclaimed the foundation of Christianity and those who did not. However, in a speech by Winthrop in 1645, the state religious believe was liberal and capturing two outlooks; the natural conception which was the state of the old believe of the natural god and the federal which was personal liberty of exercise his/her religious imageries. The natural liberty provided one’s choice on either well or even evil. Through this believe, one was to continue growing evil. However, the federal was a preconception aimed at creating honesty and good. 5 Analytically, the European Puritanism had two impacts of development in New England. These were both orthodoxy as well as nonconformity. The orthodoxy implication had its development throughout the whole 17th century which was a controversial development on the state of reformation to protestant. The nonconformity concept was alleged to the influence of religious development to the impact of preventing conscience liberty to think and do as people’s wishes. Generally, the emergence of the European Puritans in the New England was a crucial preoccupation which provided a yard for change in the social structures in England. The philosophical dogmatism held in the modalities of state leadership and governance, religion, economic standard was now given an important boost through the changes in the people’s conception about the divine relationship with God. Various philosophical theories of statements such as absolutism were now eroded. Accordingly, the state of governance in the state was modeled from the changing perceptions prototyped from the states of religious autonomy from the people. The New England was in a state of revolution with a model for social revolutions and compactness driving the society before outdoing the prehistoric sediments which were compounded mythologies about the state of the cosmos and the universe. Through the new gazing fundamental conceptions, the people were now developing new formalities of society governance where the society would engage in the broad governance as opposed to the role of absolutist king who dwelt in the control of the society. The state of the society was now beginning to reshape in the manner with which social contracts were now beginning in the development from their status of natural state of liberty as well as the regulation by the civil society. Therefore, European missionaries can be described as providing an elaborate tool for revolution, renaissance and changing social status in which the old world mythological conception of the society was getting a reawakening to newer and a more development conscious stakeholder-ship. The government and development structures of the New England are absolutely rooted to what Europeans did for it

Monday, September 16, 2019

Chinese Women in the 21st Century Essay

â€Å"There would be no new China without the Communist Party†, I’ve heard of this saying since I was a little child. From then on, the Communist Party has left a deep and giant impression on me. China makes great progress under the leadership of the Communist Party which has always been the belief of China. I’ve been told that it would be a great honor to be a party member. So now I am a party member and the Chinese belief becomes my genuine belief. However, as growing up, I begin to wonder whether all the party members can regard the Communist party as their belief all the time and whether they are doing the things the party member should do. The answer is so disappointed. The power of Chinese belief and the awareness of Chinese people of supporting the belief are becoming weaker and weaker. China needs a firm and strong advocate of the belief. Many people can establish the belief of becoming a party member, but they can’t follow their original belief all the lifetime. Gradually they lose themselves in the debauchery lives and they forget what they have said under the flag. Other people without party affiliation are harder to see their own belief clearly. A nation without definite belief is lamentable and horrible because it can be easily destroyed by the outside rumor. Chinese dream of need a power to hold the belief is the same as my dream. We are facing the similar situation. It is easy for me to set up a goal, but I can’t carry out the goal from beginning to end. Sometimes the obstacles or the outside environment make me give up the goal. I lack the perseverance. I lack the power to hold the goal. I’ m a member of the Communist Party, but I’m not true of the name for the reason I’ve mentioned above. After many years, I’ m afraid of becoming the kind of person I disliked before. I’ m afraid of losing myself in the busy world. I’ m afraid of forget all the dream and belief made when I was young. I really need the power to help me hold the belief. China is developing and I’ m growing. We all share the same dream. China needs the citizens to awaken themselves and I need the self-awakening. The glamour of the surface must be very vulnerable. We should be tested by the time. Only holding the belief all the time can we go further towards the success. Chinese dream is my dream. Hoping the dream comes true.