Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Assignment business environment Essay Example Paper Assignment business environment Essay Introduction The purpose of this report is to look at economic development matters and what encourages new businesses to locate to a new business park. I will be investigating two contrasting businesses that will create new jobs in the local economy. For the voluntary sector I have chosen Sofas and for the private sector I have chosen Tops. Task 1- have chosen Tops and Sofas as my two contrasting businesses. Tops is a young girls and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes shop. This business is international and has stores all over the country. Tops has 300 stores they are still growing and expanding. The owner of Tops owns other retail shops like Miss Selfridges and Dorothy Perkins. Tops is part of Arcadia, a public limited company is owned by shareholders, which may be members of the public. Their shares can be bought and sold on the stock exchange. Tops is run by a board of directors. These people make the major decisions within the business. They have limited liability; this means if the business gets into d ebt and cannot pay it, the business will get sued. This is known as incorporation. The shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal assets cannot be taken to pay the debt; they are then only liable for how much they have invested in the business. The purpose of Tops is to sell range of clothes for the public to buy, also to make profit. Sofas is an international charity that was founded in 1 942 in England. This organization provides help to poor countries and disaster affected areas. The purpose of this contrasting business is to help people rebuild lives working on long term projects with communities determined to help ensure they have a better future. Tops have their own aims and objectives, their aims are: Assignment business environment Essay Body Paragraphs Profit and profit mastication Ã¢â¬â they want to make as much profit as they can Survival- they as a business want to be able to survive within the clothes industry and not fail because other businesses similar to them are opening up. Growth- they also want to be able to grow and expand their business and set up more stores in different part Of the world to maximizes their profit. Their SMART objectives are: SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, and Realistic, time Constrained. Their objectives are Specific because Tops will only aim to focus on clothing and fashion accessories particularly directed at women. Measurable in this context will mean that Top shopÃ¢â¬â¢s market share can be easily assessed and get to know of their changing needs and wants. Achievable because their business strategies can be stretched to achieve the desired market share. Realistic would be whether they are actually achievable or not. Time constrained will mean they will achieve all the ob jectives by a certain time. Sofas also have their own aims and objectives, their aims are: SofaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims To help people in poor countries and relieve poverty Help provide education for people who are in need of it They take donations like toys and clothes, and then they sell on for money and all the money goes to that charity. Raise money and encourage charitable giving. SofaÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives include To provide clean hospitals To be caring and welcoming to new people To be well organized Give the best possible treatment they can Give as much advice as they can Within Tops there are a number of different stakeholders which influence the purpose Of the business. The purpose of Tops is to provide good products for customers and also to provide a good service. A stakeholder is anyone with an interest in a business. These can be individuals, groups or organizations and they are affected by the activity of the business. TiptopÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders: Customers- The businesses aims are set to please the customers and live up the customer expectations. The customers of Tops expect high quality and value for money clothes and products. They also expect the latest fashion trends and to look good in them as they are paying so much. Tops as a big clothing shop are aiming to make the working conditions better for the people that are producing their products so then the customers know the clothes have been made in good working conditions which is a benefit . If the customers at Tops didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get what they wanted, they could go elsewhere. Therefore customers have an influence over how Tops run their business. Employees- Tops need employees to help the business to expand and open a range of stores. Employees can influence Tops by contacting their trade unions if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not happy with their working conditions. Their point of view would be to make sure they have good rates of pay, good working conditions, contract of employment sick pay and holiday entitleme nts. Suppliers For Tops to make enough profit to keep the business running, they will deed suppliers to be able to buy products and sell them to customers. Without suppliers the business wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t survive. Owners- Owners are shareholders in the business, people that have invested in Tops. If Tops didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have shareholders then the business wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t run as well. Trade unions- ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an organization which supports workers when they are in disputes with their employees over the rates of pay they are getting or working conditions they are in. If the manager of the business does not agree with the trade unions or employees then Tops could lose staff over this. Local immunities The community may shop in Tops as itÃ¢â¬â¢s the closest store to them. This will influence Tops by having local customers who may always have a quick look in their store when they have time. This will increase profit for Tops. Government- They make all the laws which Tops have to stick to. This means if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t stick to these laws they could get fined and loses customers over. In conclusion, some stakeholders will have a much bigger influence compared to the others. For example staff could go elsewhere and find a new job and work there instead. SofaÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders Customers in Sofas will buy products and the money made will go to the charity then gets passed on the people to provide them with foods, clothes etc. If Sofas didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have customers then they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to raise money and help people that are in need of education, clothes and food and water. Employees Ã¢â¬â Sofas needs employees to help the commerce to expand its self and open more stores up around the world. Also they would need staff to help achieve their aims and objectives. The employees that work at Sofas are volunteers and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get paid. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have employees then the business oldest be able to raise money for the charity. Suppliers- T hey have two types of suppliers, members of the general public who donate second hand goods. They influence Sofas because if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t donate to this organization then Sofas as a charity wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to stock their shops. The second types of suppliers have medical supplies which help people in third world countries. Owners- Sofas is a charity and as such does not have owners but trustees who help to keep the organization on track with its aims and purpose. Local communities- Local community donate and buy goods from the charity. They influence Sofas because they buy goods of them and if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t Sofas wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to achieve their target of making money to give to that charity. Government The government make laws and legislation which Sofas must follow. They influence them because Sofas may have to change the way they work and how they run the business. In conclusion, the stakeholders of Sofas have a big influence on the business and how they run the business. For example, employees have the biggest amount of influence because if the business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough staff they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to expand the business and rate more stores around the world to raise more money. Both organizations have a number of different stakeholders. Each of the stakeholders will have a level of influence on the businesses. Some stakeholders will have more influence than others. The stakeholders that I think would have the most influence in Tops would be customers, employees, government and shareholders. TiptopÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim is to make a profit. Customers in Tops want the latest fashionable clothes at reasonable prices. They also expect high quality products that last the season. If Tops introduced clothes that did not meet their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations hen sales would decrease and Tops would not be able to achieve their aims and objectives as they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be making enough money to make a profit. Employees th at work in Tops have an influence on the businesses aims and objectives because if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have employees to work in the stores then they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet their aims and objectives as a business because people have any to buy the product off. Also employees are needed widely for expanding the business to different part of the world and opening more of the stores. The government also have a big influence on TiptopÃ¢â¬â¢s equines aims and objectives as they make all the laws for not only that business but other businesses too and if the business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow or stick to those rules then they will get fined and could have a bad reputation created which would have negative influences on them as current customers may be put off buying products from them and go to one of their competitors close by like New Look or River Island. Shareholders are the last of the four stakeholders I think have a big influence on TiptopÃ¢â¬â¢s aims and objectives. They are importan t because the store wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t grow and expand if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have owners. Both organizations have a number Of different stakeholders. Each of the stakeholders will have a level of influence on the businesses. Some stakeholders will have more influence than others. The stakeholders that think would have the most influence in Sofas would be volunteers, customers. Think volunteers would have a big influence on the businesses aims and objectives for Sofas because without volunteers, the stores wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to run and that means the charity would have money donated for the charity. Sofas is not out there to make a profit; the business would be struggling not because of them not making a profit as there oldest be anyone to work in the shops. Customers are very important in the influence of SofaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims and objectives as the business wants to have second hand goods handed in from the customers and then people will buy the second hand goods if they know the mon ey is going to charity. If the customers werenÃ¢â¬â¢t coming into the charity shops then this would affect their aim to raise money because there is no-one to buy the products. Overall, I know that within the two contrasting businesses I have described above, they both have a number of different stakeholders that have an influence on their businesses aims and objectives. 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Sunday, November 24, 2019
Victor E. Frankl Writes of the Meaning and Purpose of Life and Humanity essays Victor E. Frankl is known both as an internationally famous psychiatrist, and as the author of Man's Search for Meaning, noted as one of the top 10 influential books in America by a Library of Congress survey. Frankl's work has been widely read, and 151 books have been published about Frankl and his work in 15 different languages. He had received 29 Honorary Doctorates, and lectured at 209 universities. He passed away in Man's Search for Meaning starts with a deeply descriptive look at Frankl's five-year imprisonment in Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps. The second section of his work is a detailed description of logotherapy, the psychotherapeutic model developed by Frankl. He sees the human desire for meaning and purpose in life as the fundamental driving force of humanity. In Man's Search for Meaning, Frankl manages to successfully marry an abstract psychological theory with a deeply human, Frankl's fundamental tenets of existentialism focus closely on the "will to meaning", which is simply humankind's need to find purpose and meaning in life. Frankl sees humankind's basic underlying motivation in life as the need to live a purposeful and meaningful life. Frankl embraces individual freedom, the subjective understanding of life, and individuality in his discussions about the purpose and meaning of life. As such, Frankl clearly considers existentialism to be valuable to the quest for wisdom. Frankl's comments about spiritual freedom are sometimes profound and insightful. In the midst of his time in the concentration camp, and forced into yet another day of hard labor, and fighting a deep fear of his wife's death and torture, he begins to understand that spiritual freedom is found within. Frankl writes, "A thought transfixed me: for the first time in my life I saw the truth as it is set into song by so ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Economic Impact of Peacekeeping - Essay Example The topic gives me a chance to highlight the importance of peace in economic development. Any country at war its economy grows backward and investors will not invest in that country thus leading to high level of unemployment. What does a peacekeeping mission help in the economy of the country? What are the challenges associated with the peacekeeping missions across the world? The peacekeeping mission is an activity that provides peace and security in a country affected by conflict. Peacekeeping missions have helped countries like Kosovo, Timor Leste, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Burundi, and Ivory Coast restore stability (Garnahan, Durch & Gilmore, 2006). The peacekeeping mission is crucial for the propriety of the continent. According to Nibishaka, Ã¢â¬Å"When it brings about peace in the continent, it creates an environment that is conducive to reconstruction and development in our region and possibilities of faster economic development" (Nibishaka, 2011.p.2). Despite the positive role played by peacekeeping missions towards the growth of the economy, it is faced with various challenges. Some of the challenges include the operations of peacekeeping missions sometimes canno t be sustained by the developing country, and a mission sometimes takes policies without understanding their impact on the local economy. Finally, there is the uneven distribution of economic impact by the geographic area or ethnic groups (Garnahan, Durch & Gilmore, 2006). Consequently, the questions raised above are critical to the fact that peacekeeping play a crucial role in the growth of any economy. The economy determines the many things including the living status of the concerned citizens. If stability is not in a country, the life will be difficult in that country. In my opinion, nobody likes war and from my perspective, stability is only to economic development of any country.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Political Economy of Chinas Development Model - Essay Example oom is a great of pride from a Chinese perspective, the rapidly growing economic crisis that has besieged world economics calls for a fresh reconsideration of this phenomenal growth. 1While some commentators argue that greedy Wall Street financial firms are to blame, others point fingers much higher at the former chairman of the US Federal Reserve Board Alan Greenspan. Other scholars with socialist orientations see in the entire crisis as the inherent weaknesses of the capitalist system imploding as it inevitably would. It is some of these views that are sampled in this paper. Certain economic analysts in China are angry. They point out that the cause of this crisis is the irresponsibility of the rich Chinese who have thrown good money after bad with crazy speculative investments of foreign reserves on failed foreign financial organizations. Despite these criticisms China has joined hands with the US, Europe and other countries to spur recovery. The measures it has taken include a rescue package of 4 trillion Yuan and increased investment in American treasury bonds. The International reserve currency, usually measured against American dollars, helps to regulate international trade. All countries involved in international trade reserve some foreign currency for the sake of trade with one another. When supply exceeds demand however, a crisis of international proportions arises as is happening today. The strength of international trade relies on stability in the bigger economies such as the US, the EU and lately China. Most money in these economies is kept in the stock market and banking systems. However, when these very systems of currency storage are hit by a depression, the entire world economy is affected, Jacques Rueff, 1971. The factors playing out in China may therefore be too complex for some of its domestic critics to conjecture. But in very simple terms, their country is now a major player in the world economy and crises of this nature come with the
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Frontier Airlines Portfolio - Research Proposal Example former Frontier Airlines, together with the founders put together a business plan to reformulate the company into a new incarnation and call it Ã¢â¬ËFrontierÃ¢â¬â¢. With an investment of $516,000, the business could forge a new place for itself in the market. On February 9, 1994, this plan was put into action as the newly formed company became incorporated. The head office was opened on March 15, starting an airline that could serve both coasts and earn a position as a Ã¢â¬ËnationalÃ¢â¬â¢ airline (Our History, 2009). In April of 1994, private stock placements net $1.3 million, and by May 20 public stock offerings earn $7.6 million which covers the startup financing as outlined in the business plan. By June 9, the first reservation is made by our first passenger and the company is ready to fly! By July 1, 1994, Continental Airlines has vacated 25 routes through Denver, which allows Frontier to launch its first flights on July 5th. In the first month of service, Frontier carries 5,922 passengers and in the next five months, the airline has added several new routes. Within the first six months that Frontier has been flying, the airline We are now flying to Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and other locations, and will be adding flights to Seatle/Tacoma, San Diego, and St Louis during the year. The airline ends flights to Fargo and Bismarck, N.D., which is an end to the original eight destinations flown by the airline. At the end of 1996, the airline has increased its size in eighteen months of operation to a fleet of 10 737Ã¢â¬â¢s, 725 employees, and 1,877,3372 passengers. (1993, 2009). In 1997, Frontier announces that it will merge with Western Pacific, but the merger is called off in September. However, Western Pacific is forced to shut down operations in February of 1998, allowing Frontier to become the principal carrier out of Denver International Airport, offering low-fare prices and quality service. By the end of 1998 we have grown to a fleet size of 17 Boeing 737
Friday, November 15, 2019
Infrared Thermography System Requirements As the use of advanced materials continues to increase in the aerospace community, the need for a quantitative, rapid, in situ inspection technology has become a critical concern throughout the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over an extended period of time to determine the effects of various loading conditions. Additionally, the detection and characterization of defects such as delaminations, cracking, corrosion, etc, is of great concern. 1.1 Thermographic inspection of materials Thermography is particularly adapted for non-destructive testing and can be used on different materials: carbon-epoxy, lightweight metallic alloys, thin metal skin on honeycomb structure (like aircraft doors), epoxy resin with glass fibre reinforcement GFRP, and panel skins with CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic) like helicopter blades. The control contributes to highlight the most prominent types of discontinuities seen in aerospace materials including: porosity, which reduces the compressive load carrying capability, water ingress or moisture which can degrade the mechanical properties of some resins or lead to freeze inside the part causing more and more damage, disbond or delamination or cracking resulting from low strength or failure, impact damage during the taxi or caused by bird strike or by a dropped tool during maintenance, and inclusions which can reduce strength by kinking the fibres around the inserted material. Thermographic methods are those in which the presence of flaws is determined by monitoring the flow of heat over the surface of a structure after some external introduction of a temperature gradient. The presence of flaws disrupts the normal pattern of heat flow that would be expected in a sound structure. The method is more sensitive to flaws near to the surface. Modern thermographic systems commonly use infrared (IR) cameras to detect radiated heat and are controlled by TV video electronics which sample the field of view at a typical rate of 50Hz, allowing temperature variations on a 20ms time-scale to be resolved. The camera is sensitive to temperature changes of about 0.005ÃâÃ °C and covers a chosen range of temperature, 4ÃâÃ °C and 8ÃâÃ °C being commonly suitable, although operation is possible between -50ÃâÃ °C and +100ÃâÃ °C. Liquid crystal coatings and pyroelectric detectors have also been used [3.1] to detect IR radiation. Infrared thermography has proved to be an effective tool in the inspection of materials. By providing either a single-sided or a two-sided inspection, the presence and growth of defects in aerospace structures can be evaluated and used to estimate the remaining life of these materials. Thermography can be performed using a variety of heat sources including flash heating (short pulse), step heating (long pulse) and spatially shaped heat sources, thus providing an inspection tool that is applicable to a wide range of material properties, thicknesses and defect types. The principle of infrared thermography (IRT) for non-destructive inspection (NDI) consists in highlighting the relevant differences or gradient disturbances of temperature due to imperfections and deteriorations of the inspected structures. They become visible on the surfaces of these objects. The domain of infrared thermography is quite recent and covers vast fields of applications. In the industrial context, infrared thermography is used either by the passive approach (by simple observation of the isotherms on the surface of interest) or by the active approach (by stimulating the thermal response of the specimen). Thermography has many advantages over more traditional inspection methods. For example, ultrasonic (UT) inspection methods typically require the use of a coupling medium (either water or some other fluid), which can present difficulties for some materials and can make in situ inspection significantly more complicated. Further, UT inspections consist of scanning a small diameter transducer over the surface of the structure; this requires expensive, automated scanning equipment and can be quite time consuming. Thermography, on the other hand, can rapidly image large areas of the structure with little or no surface preparation. As it is mentioned in [3.2], in a typical inspection it is possible to image a 1m2 area in approximately 20 seconds. 1.2 Thermography sensors specifications The IR or infrared portion occupies roughly the region between 10 to the minus 4 to 10 to the minus 3 centimetres, or, from about 1 micron to about 100 microns. But most commercial equipment comes designed to operate in portions of the region, for a number of reasons (lower atmospheric absorption of IR radiation -or IR atmospheric windows, detector availability at reasonable cost). Commercial IR thermography equipment comes in in the following wavelength bands and their filtered sub-bands. Common jargon follows approximately the terminology listed below [3.3]: the near IR region and band is from about 0.7 to 1.7 microns, the short wave or SW band is from about 1.8 to 2.4 microns, the medium wave or MW band is from about 2.4 to 5 microns, and the long wave or LW band is from about 8 to 14 microns. Depending on the selected wavelength, there are a number of performance requirements that must be properly defined to ensure high-quality inspection results. An overview of them is given in the following whereas a more detailed definition will follow in the next subsections of the deliverable. An infrared detector response greater than 5 microns and less than 15 microns with the spectral bandwidth encompassing the 8-10 micron region. Accurate data repeatability in temperature value and location. A direct linear correspondence between the distance travelled, anatomic location and the displayed temperature values. Controlled infrared beam collimation to prevent sensor cross-talk. A sufficient number of infrared samples must be taken in order to maintain an adequately detailed graph resolution. The number of samples taken should be equivalent to the minimum standards of acceptable camera systems. Repeatability and precision of 0.1ÃâÃ °C detection of temperature difference. Accuracy of +/- 2% or less. Ability to perform accurate quantitative differential temperature analysis. High-resolution image display for interpretation. Ability to archive images for future reference and image comparison. Software manipulation of the images should be maintained within strict parameters to insure that the diagnostic qualities of the images are not compromised. Having decided that a thermographic (infrared) inspection will provide the kind of information which will satisfy an inspection need, the next decision is to select a thermographic sensor. The technical specifications are lengthy and full of abbreviations and jargon. A full comprehension of the meanings and implications of the specifications is essential to making a correct equipment selection. The following information regarding the critical parameters in thermography inspection tasks has been taken from [3.4]. Operating Band, emissivity Correction, instantaneous Field of View (Spatial Resolution), measurement of Field of View, spot Size Ratio, noise Equivalent Temperature Difference, minimum Detectable Temperature, thermal Resolution, accuracy, zoom (optical and digital), lenses and Filters, frame Rate, field display, and non-uniformity Correction. The consortium has decided to avoid thermographic sensors with cooled detector types whose their cost can exceed 100,000 Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ per sensor. In case the performance of the uncooled thermo- cameras is not satisfying, the consortium will decide for the possible use of cooled thermography sensors. The technical specifications of the thermography sensors for the three wavelengths considered are analytically given in the following Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Technical specifications of the three operating bands in IR systems NIR MidWaveIR LongWaveIR DetectorÃ type Uncooled microbolometer ImageÃ format Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¥ 80 x 80 pixel PixelÃ pitch SpectralÃ range 0.9 ÃâÃ µm Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ 1.7 ÃâÃ µm 3.5 ÃâÃ µm Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ 5 ÃâÃ µm 8 ÃâÃ µm Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. 13 ÃâÃ µm RangeÃ forÃ measuring/ visualization -20 ÃâÃ °C Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ +80ÃâÃ °C TemperatureÃ resolution NETD MeasurementÃ accuracy ÃâÃ ± 2 K (0 ÃâÃ °C Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ 100 ÃâÃ °C) Dynamicrange 16 bit Imagerate > 30 frames per second FieldÃ ofÃ view > 15ÃâÃ ° x 15ÃâÃ ° Interfaces USB or Giga-Ethernet or CameraLink or IEEE-1394 (FireWire) or S-/-C-Video or RS-232 OR VGA or WLAN PowerÃ supply 12VDC Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. 24VDC OperatingÃ temperature -15 ÃâÃ °C Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. +45 ÃâÃ °C StoringÃ temperature -25 ÃâÃ °C Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ +50 ÃâÃ °C Humidity Relative humidity 10% Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ 95%, non-condensing Shock Operational : 25 G, IEC 68-2-29 Vibration Operational : 2 G, IEC 68-2-6 Weight Options Radiometric calibration -40 ÃâÃ °C Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.. + 300 ÃâÃ °C High temperature calibration up to 1,200 ÃâÃ °C Image processing functionalities Image capturing software 1.3 Active thermographic techniques and excitation sources Active infrared thermography [3.5] is a non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) technique requiring an external source of energy to induce a temperature difference between defective and non-defective areas in the specimen under examination. A wide variety of energy sources are available, the most common types can be divided into optical, mechanical or inductive, although many other sources can be employed. Figure 3.1 shows typical examples of heat sources of these three excitation types. Figure 3.1 Heat sources/excitations examples: (a) optical: flashes (b) mechanical: ultrasonic transducer (c) inductive: electromagnetic coil 1.3.1 Proposed experimental setups for the thermographic techniques Regardless of the excitation mode being used, three thermographic techniques (pulsed, step and lock-in) will be employed. The experimental setup, along with some theoretical aspects, is given in the following. Pulsedthermography:Pulsed thermography (PT) is one of the most popular thermal stimulation methods in active thermography. One reason for this is the quickness of the inspection relying on a short thermal stimulation pulse, with duration going from a few milliseconds for high conductivity material inspection (such as metal) to a few seconds for low conductivity specimens (such as plastics). Figure 3.2: The proposed experimental set-up using pulsed thermography in reflection with optical excitation. Brief heating will be employed here where both the heating phase (while the pulse is applied) and the cooling phase will be observed. There is no interest in observing the thermal changes during the excitation since these images are often saturated. More importantly, this early data does not contain any information about the internal defects yet. In pulsed thermography, the stimulus will be applied with a xenon flash lamp for a flash pulse and alternatively with a halogen lamp in the transient case. Solving the Heat Conduction Equation tells us that the thermal propagation time to the depth of 2 mm to a subsurface defect is about 40 ms in aluminium and for 2 mm of graphite epoxy is about 30s. This means halogen lamps will be preferred here since flash is better for materials of high thermal diffusivity, e.g., metals. Materials with a low thermal diffusivity, e.g., composites, have a long thermal propagation time, which limits flash thermography to the detection of shallow defects. Stepheatingthermography:Step heating will be also investigated using a larger pulse (from several seconds to a few minutes). The temperature decay is of interest; in this case, the increase of surface temperature will be monitored during the application of a step heating pulse. Variations of surface temperature with time are related to specimen features as in PT. This technique is sometimes referred to as time-resolved infrared radiometry (TRIR). Lock-inthermography: Lock-in thermography (LT) will be also employed, (known as modulated thermography), where the specimen is stimulated with a periodic energy source, Figure 3.3. Sinusoidal waves of different frequencies will be used, although it is possible to use other periodic waveforms as well. Internal defects, acting as barriers for heat propagation, are expected to produce changes in amplitude and phase delay of the response signal at the surface that will permit the detection of defects in higher depths (>3mm). Figure 3.3: The proposed experimental set-up for lock-in thermography in reflection with optical excitation 1.3.2 Types of excitation sources Halogenlamps:mainly used in synchronously stimulated thermography as a radiation source for generating heat radiation with smooth time characteristics. Variations of active thermography with these lamps are popular under the names or Lock-In or phase sensitive (so named by analogy with the principle of operation of the Lock-In amplifier) and frequency- modulated (can be seen as a superposition of the Lock-In thermography). The use of halogen lamps as an energy source is necessary due to their relatively high efficiency, simplicity in use and possibility of control by amplitude modulation of conventional power units. Pulsedlamps:this type of source is mainly applicable to the methods for determining the time thermal transmission properties of materials by means of a generator as a source of excitation. There are used the methods of the optical pulse thermography where the studied structure is heated by short (single) thermal energy waves from xenon flash that create energy density to 100 kJ/m2 for a period of a few ms to a few s. The method is known as active thermography inspection by heat wave and is mainly used to determine the transient thermal response of the object. Non-opticalexcitationsources:ultrasound It is used in the thermo-vibration systems. For this purpose, a source or sources of ultrasonic waves are used which, in their distribution in locations of inhomogeneity or defect create acoustic friction. Thus, heat is generated which affects the surface of the material and is visible to the thermal camera. A typical application of ultrasound sources and vibration-thermography is for inspection of materials with very low thermal conductivity. The application of synchronous vibration-thermography allows increasing the resolution of this method and study of thin thermal layers in places with difficult access. As mentioned before, non-optical excitation sources are out of the scope and will not considered in the proposed experimentation. The required specifications for the excitation sources considered in the proposed experimentation have been identified and are given in the Table 3.2Table 3.4. Table 3.2: Flash lamps specifications StandardÃ flashÃ head Ringflash Energy max. 6000 J max. 3000 J FlashÃ frequency ~ ÃâÃ ¼ s PowerÃ connection 110-230 V / 50-60 Hz Accessories Lamps, reflectors, filters Table 3.3: Halogen lamps specifications SingleÃ lamps Power consumption 500-1000 W / lamp @ 230V Lightoutput 37.000 350.000 cd axial Modulation frequency Sensible up to max. 1Hz Accessories Reflectors, filters, robot mounting Halogenlamparray Power consumption 4 x 650 W or 8 x 650 W Description Compact housing with air cooling and heat protective glass Table 3.4: Hot/cold gun specifications HeatingÃ hoseÃ supply 230 V / 50 Hz, compressed air approx. 2 bar AchievableÃ airÃ temperature Approx. 250 ÃâÃ °C 1.4 Conclusions The specifications for the three IR sensors and the excitation sources have been identified. Especially, all the critical parameters in thermography inspection tasks were presented and the technical specifications of the thermography sensors for the three wavelengths were specified so as to meet the requirement of the problem. All the well-known excitation sources were also analytically presented and the technical specifications of the selected sources were determined.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
2. 1 Explain the ways in which adults can effectively support and extend the speech, language and communication development of children during the early years. Adults can effectively support the speech, language and communication development of the child by the parent talking fluently and clearly so the child can hear the patterns of the language they are learning. The adult can also help the childÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of communication by miming the actions they are saying, this help the child put together the actions and words to understand what he adult is saying.An adult can extend the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development by introducing new words, and getting the child to use more intellectual words such as Ã¢â¬ËdogÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of Ã¢â¬ËdoggyÃ¢â¬â¢. Babies communicate by crying for their needs such as for a nappy change or a bottle. Adults can support the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development by talking to babies in short phases and high pitched voices and emphasis on key words, this is cal led parentese.Another way that adults communicate with children is by eye contact, if the child has sigh issues then the babies response would be by listening intently and becoming still, as for a baby that is well sighted would Ã¢â¬ËdanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and smile. Adults can extend the childÃ¢â¬â¢s communication development by repeating a word to the baby to get them used to the word, and then showing the child the meaning, by also miming and using body language. 2. Explain the relevant positive effects of adult support for the children and their causes. The positive effects of adult support for the children involve improvements in speech, language and communication skills, social interaction, behaviour and emotional development / self confidence. Praising and encouragement are very important when supporting the childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication development as they need a lot of praising or rewards when the child is speaking correctly.By the adults giving the child rew ards and praising them supports the child as they know they are doing good, and will continue to excel and improve their development, as well as the child gains self Ã¢â¬â confidence and self Ã¢â¬â esteem when they are being praised which allows the child to experience new things and experiences, this would help the childÃ¢â¬â¢s communication as they would have the confidence to speak up and ask questions. There are a few methods that are used to praise children, one is verbal, such as praising the child by giving them positive comments about what they are doing and how they do things like Ã¢â¬ËBrilliant Tony!You played really wellÃ¢â¬â¢ As this has two positive comments would make the child feel good, and would then go and play well again and this would improve their social interaction as well as their motional development. Another positive method that the adult could use is symbols, such as smiley faces and well done stickers when the child has done something well such as reading, this would have a positive effect on the child development as they feel confident as they can read well or playing well, which could lead to the child trying to learn and do more things as they feel good about themselves.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Tiera Bristol November 19, 2012 Policing in Kelsey: Budget Report Professor Charles McClelland Abstract Working as the budget director for the mayor of the city of Kelsey, we have recently been getting numerous complaints from the citizens about an increase in crime and also an issue of the public demanding for more police officers. With the population of the city growing daily, the increase of crime is continuing to progress as well.The mayor has informed us that this past year is the highest increase in crime in the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s history, that the federal government has reduced the federal pass-through money for the state and that the budgeting group needs to revamp the budget for the coming year. Within this document as the Budget officer, we will take a close look at the present budget to determine the changes that need to be made in order to come up with a solution that is politically feasible.In doing so we will examine numerous things in depth which includes looking at how the changes affect the fiscal cycle of your budgeting, how the preparation, execution, and evaluation of the budgeting cycle would change, our budgeting approach based on the changes and the reasons, differences of the chosen budgeting approach from those not used, a plan to address the crime issue, and lastly a summary of the cost-benefit analysis of your plan. Main According to Apollo Group (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Kelsey is nestled in the hills of the Northwest Valley.With a population of 625,000 Kelsey offers the amenities of the big city, but still retains its small town charmÃ¢â¬ (para. 1). In addition to the limited budget, there has been a recent budgetary reform at the federal level, which has put additional pressure on local police agencies to use the federal money before it expires. The state Chiefs of Police Association is lobbying the state for a 15% public safety tax for a temporary 3-year period in order to make up the deficit. The state legislature and local governments are wa ry of adding any additional new taxes on citizens.In addition, the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Sierra Club organization is putting pressure on state and local government to hire less police officers, build more prisons, and develop the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure. There are different types of budgeting that businesses typically use and those include Operating budgets, Capital Budgets and there are many subtypes that exist because a budget can also be created for special events, the recruitment and retention of new staff, and to manage the advertising expenses and return on investments for a business (Demand Media, 1999-2012).According to Demand Media (1999-2012), Ã¢â¬Å"An operating budget outlines the total operating expenses and income for the organization, typically for the period of a fiscal year. Capital budgets evaluate the investments and assets of the business, and a cash budget shows the predicted cash flow in and out of the business over a period of timeÃ¢â¬ (para. 2 ). According to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Capital budgeting has at its core the tool of cost-benefit analysis; it merely extends the basic form into a multi-period analysis, with consideration of the time value of money.In this context, a new product, venture, or investment is evaluated on a start-to-finish basis, with care taken to capture all the impacts on the company, both cost and benefits. When these inputs and outputs are quantified by year, they can then be discounted to present value to determine the net present value of the opportunity at the time of the decisionÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,Ã¢â¬ 2012).In taking steps to resolve these issues in the city of Kelsey and coming up with a solution that is politically feasible we will use the cost-benefit analysis which is the process of determining costs and benefits for programs, decisions, and projects and making a true yet equal determination for an end result. This process in my opinion is almost like a predict ion for what the end result will look likeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"In governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,Ã¢â¬ 2012).When it comes to looking at different Business decisions that would use the cost-benefit analysis, the reasoning could be, but not limited to Ã¢â¬Å"whether or not to add employees, introduce a new technology, purchase equipment, change vendors, implement new procedures, and remodel or relocate facilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,Ã¢â¬ 2012). According to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-benefit analysis is the exercise of evaluating an action's consequences by weighing the pluses, or benefits, against the minuses, or costs.It is the fundamental assessment behind virtually every business decision, due to the simple fact that business managers do not want to spend money unless the resulting benefits are expected to exceed the costs. As companies increasingly seek to cut costs and improve productivity, cost-benefit analysis has become a valuable tool for evaluating a wide range of business opportunities, such as major purchases, organizational changes, and expansionsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,Ã¢â¬ 2012).In coming up with a plan that demonstrates how the preparation, execution and evaluation of the budgeting cycle would change would look like this, according to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"A formal cost-benefit analysis is a multi-step process which includes a preliminary survey, a feasibility study, and a final report. At the conclusion of each step, the party responsible for performing the analysis can decide whether continuing on to the next step is warranted.The preliminary survey is an initial evaluation that involves gathering information on both the opportunity and the existing situation. The feasibility study involves completing the information gathering as needed and evaluating the data to gauge the short- and long-term impact of the opportunity. Finally, the formal cost-benefit analysis report should provide decision makers with all the pertinent information they need to take appropriate action on the opportunity.It should include an executive summary and introduction; information about the scope, purpose, and methodology of the study; recommendations, along with factual justification; and factors concerning implementationÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,Ã¢â¬ 2012). When it comes to coming up with ideas to address the issue of crime there are no set strategy that can be deemed perfect. Instead it is a good idea to proactive, alert and daily trying to come up with new ideas to address this issue.Crime is on the rise and everyday criminals are getting smarter and coming up with new tactics and ways for committing crimes, therefore it is critical for law enforcement, as a unit to put just as much time and effort, if not more, in coming up with new/advanced approaches, tactics, plans and policies to deter crime. Through research I found that Governor SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to fight crime in the State of Michigan to very interesting. After examining the GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s plan we feel that it would also be a good idea to look at some of the same things within the city of Kelsey around coming up with a plan to address the current crime issues.According to Michigan Radio Newsroom (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Secure Cities Partnership (provide local assistance and coordinate teams of local, state and federal law enforcement officers to direct patrols and provide investigative resources), Fire and first responders (forming an advisory council that will recommend ways to provide better emergency services statewide with a long-term, sustainable cost model), Prosecutorial support (investment for prosecutorial support in distressed cities), Mental health courts (They can require individuals to comply with treatment, whi ch may keep them from committing crimes), Drug courts (Drug treatment courts address the revolving-door cycle in which drug and alcohol offenders move in and out of the justice system; a high-risk, high-need drug court initiative that expands drug court programming), Human trafficking (protects victims and goes after the individuals who profit from this crime), New paths for young people (help teens from urban areas realize that promising opportunities exist), Removing abandoned buildings (Abandoned buildings often are havens for illegal activity. orbid individuals with unpaid taxes or who own blighted properties from buying any more property at auction), Truancy (placing more social workers within public schools)Ã¢â¬ (para. 3). Conclusion Throughout this document we have analyzed ways to come up with a solution that is politically feasible in making corrections to the budget. Using the cost-benefit analysis tool is essential and highly beneficial in determining what will stay an d what organizations will be dismissed. We have looked at the Governor of Michigan plan and approach to address the crime issues and of those mentioned and described, would be necessary to analysis within the city of Kelsey. Reference Apollo Group. (2007). The City of Kelsey. Retrieved from
Friday, November 8, 2019
55 Research Paper Topics to Jumpstart Your Writing The research paper is one of the most tried and true assignments in high school or college. Its your teachers opportunity to see how well you can research, convey, and organize that research, and assemble everything into one five-paragraph (or maybe 15-page) paper.Before you get started on your paper, youll need to have a comprehensive understanding of what your teacher expects out of your completed assignment, as well as a really great topic that you can spend a lot of time researching. However, with several classes filled with many students, your teachers have likely seen the same topics over and over (and over) again. Here are some research paper topics that are guaranteed to keep your interest (and theirs). Borrow one of these ideas or get inspiration from this list, which is broken down by subject category.Social issues research paper topicsSocial issues are always going to exist, unfortunately. But the more we learn about what they are, how we can solve them, and how to prevent them, the better off well be. Here are a few social issues topics to think about and to do research on.Many children are diagnosed with ADD or ADHD and are subsequently put on medication, but some advocate that children are overly medicated and that we should instead have more patience for those who cant sit still or have minor behavioral issues. How should this issue be approached?The homeless population in the United States is more than 1.5 million people. What are the conditions that lead to someones being homeless? Are there ways to combat it?Girls who have been in the foster care system are more likely to be human trafficked. Why is this? What can be done?Someone who grows up in poverty is more likely to live in poverty all their life. Why is that? How can someone escape poverty?Opioid addiction is a huge issue in the United States right now. What led to the widespread abuse of opioid drugs? What is being done to solve this problem?Sexual assault is a hot button issue on colle ge campuses. How widespread is sexual assault on college campuses and what is being done to stop it?Each year, 1.2 million students drop out of high school. What is causing them to drop out? What can be done to combat the dropout rate?Many terminally-ill patients in America are advocating for assisted suicide. What countries already allow this, and what are the pros and the cons?Performance artists in public places such as beach boardwalks have their activities regulated by some local governments. Why is this? What are the pros and the cons?TV shows such as Hoarders have shed light on people who collect tremendous amounts of items, trash, and/or animals in their house. How are these people being helped? What causes hoarding problems?Political research paper topicsThe events in politics may always be changing, but the nature of politics remains the same. Theres always a lot to discuss and a lot to learn, making for a very interesting research topic for your paper. Here are a few idea s to get you thinking.North Korea has recently ramped up its nuclear program. What are some ramifications of this?There has been a large political divide in the country for the past few years. What factors led to the large division?What is the AHCA? How is it different from the ACA?The U.S. recently pulled out of the Paris Climate Agreement. What is the Paris Climate Agreement and what is Americas history of involvement with it?Confederate monuments are being torn down after the events in Charlottesville. Write about the history of one confederate monument thats been torn down. When was it built? What were the circumstances of it being constructed?Some feel that religious liberties have been threatened in the United States for several years. Why do they feel this way? What is the history of religious liberties in this country?Much of the news in the last couple of years has been the rise of populism. What is the definition of populism? How does it affect the political climate?Many p arents are choosing not to vaccinate their children because they have read that there is a link between vaccines and autism. Should parents have to vaccinate their children to guarantee herd immunity for all children? Even though the evidence points out that vaccines do not cause autism, why do parents still insist? How have certain celebrities contributed to this issue by being vocal on this topic?Many people in Middle America dont feel that their viewpoints are adequately expressed in the national media. Why do they feel this way? How does this affect national discourse?Historical research paper topicsMany of us learn a lot about the Revolutionary War or the Civil War in our classrooms, but often theres not enough time to explore everything that you might be interested in. Here are a few off-the-beaten-path research paper topics that will be sure to capture your attention as well as your instructors.What caused the market crash of 2008? How are we still recovering?There were sever al all black towns in the United States in the early 20th century. What led to the establishment of these cities?Who were the Freedom Riders?What were the Tulsa Race Riots?What was Female Hysteria in the Victorian era?There are a lot of conspiracy theories surrounding Kennedys assassination. Research about one in depth and discuss how the theory came about.What was the Korean War over? How does it affect society today?What was the Vietnam War over? How does it affect society today?What was the Space Race? Who were the major players and why did it matter so much who got to the moon first?Why did a lot of protesters and hippies gather at Haight-Ashbury in the 1960s? Write about the history of this notable neighborhood in San Francisco.What were Jim Crow laws? How do they still affect society today?When was Affirmative Action enacted? How does it still affect society today?What was the Reconstructive era? How does it still affect the South today?What was Watergate? Who were the major p layers and what was the result? How did it affect the country?What was the Equal Rights Amendment? Why was it not ratified?What was Prohibition? What were the circumstances and why did it finally end?Who was the first woman to hold political office in the United States?Eleanor Roosevelt was a very notable First Lady. Who was she and why was she so important?What was the case Loving v. Virginia? Who did it involve and what was it about?Environmental research paper topicsThere are many things to learn and research on about the world around us. Whether its how we can combat climate change or research alternative fuels, its important to know the answers for a healthy global environment for our future children and grandchildren. Here are a few ideas for environmental research paper topics.What is global warming? What can we do to minimize the effects of it?Some people say that certain global warming studies are funded by industries that have a vested interest in the issue, such as solar energy companies. How are they funded and conducted? Should the research be conducted by impartial parties?The polar ice caps are melting. What does this mean for our environment?There are many endangered species throughout the world. Pick one to write about and write about conservation efforts being made.What are alternative fuels? Should we use them or not? Write about the pros and the cons.What are some ways you could individually reduce your carbon footprint?What countries are leading the globe on combating climate change? What steps are they taking to lead the way?What is deforestation and how does it affect the environment?Many coral reefs are disappearing. Why is that and what kind of actions are scientists taking?What are sinkholes? Why do they occur?Film, literature, and art research paper topicsFilm, literature, and art are part of what defines a culture. Its not surprising then that there is much to explore when you are thinking about these topics. Here are a few interest ing paper topics that pertain to film, literature, and art.Look at a list of classic films. Pick one and write about why it was so influential.In the year 2017 its still quite rare to find a female film director. Pick a favorite female film director and discuss what unique perspectives she adds to film and culture.Theres more of a push to ignore the traditional canon of literature because it features a lot of white, male writers. What do this mean and what do you think of it?Female artists are highly underrepresented in art museums throughout the world. Is it just that there arent many female artists traditionally? What are some efforts being made to include more female artists?Some people feel that Hollywood is hypocritical in embracing director Roman Polanski. What makes them feel this way? What events made him a controversial figure?Read a banned book and research on why the book was banned. What were the circumstances?They say poetry is a dying art. What do you think? Is poetry still alive and well?After youve chosen a topic, be sure to get a second opinionChoosing an interesting research paper topic is often half the battle. Once you get a topic nailed down that youre really fascinated by, its a lot easier to research and write about it.After youve written all of the content of your research paper, its always important to get someone to look over your paper and ensure that its error-free and makes sense to the reader. If you have any questions, be sure to reach out to your instructor or a parent for advice. Finally, if you want to ensure that your paper doesnt contain any spelling or grammar mistakes, you should consider hiring a professional editor such as one from ServiceScape to take a look at your paper. A professional can help you spot an error that you may have missed and help you achieve clean, easy-to-read copy that is guaranteed to impress.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Diet Fabs In todays society people have started to become overweight at early stages, due to the foods that they eat. People try many diets, proper exercise and to manage food, but it seems that more and more people cant control there eating habits. There are many opinions when it comes to dieting and how it should be done. What one person might think is good for you the other person might say it is not.Americans suffer from what you call diet. It seems that everywhere you go; there are certain diets that are available in supermarkets, malls and pharmacies. There are all kinds of diet pills on store shelves that people will buy just to lose weight not knowing the effect that it will have on their inner body. Back in the day people were not really concern about their weight like they are today, it seems to be all about the image one must portray.English: Back cover of Barbie booklet about how to...Commercials on TV have so many celebrities sponsoring diet clubs just so you will join and to thin k well, if Marie Osmond can do it then I can to.Some food are ridiculously temping to eat even though you are not suppose to eat it because it is high in calories and full of food additives that are not good for you. With so many food shows on TV how can you lose weight if the shows are cooking good looking food?Millions of people today are fighting obesity than before because people lack going home and cooking a healthy meal instead they will stop and grab fast food and take it home to feed their kids. Fast food chains have become more convenient for most families just because both parents are working and do not have the time to cook. Obesity is wide spread...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
3 - Research Paper Example Ethnic origin provides an individual with a sense of identity from other people. It reinforces the idea that a certain individual is what he or she is because of his or her belongingness to this certain group, where the culture of that group is passed on to that individual by means of language. It is quite comparable to an intangible home of the individual where different members of a huge family interact in seemingly similar ways and valuing similar cultural norms. Ethnicity is closely linked to the concept of a nationality, where, in Political Science, refers to the perception of belongingness to a group or a collective of people exhibiting uniqueness or a sense of distinction from other groups of people. Ethnicity is Janus-faced as it presents two paradoxical roles in the society. The concept of Ethnicity unites the people of the same ethnic origin and consolidates a homogenous collective group of that same ethnic origin. We can see this in the classic example of the Chinese. In s eemingly most major cities in the world, there is always a sector in that city deemed a Chinatown, where most, if not all, people, citizen or migrants, that are ethnically and conservative Chinese establish their homes and their businesses.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Shaw Flooring Company Analysis - Essay Example Main products of Shaw Flooring involve carpets, area rugs, ceramic tiles, hard wood flooring, laminate flooring, and hard wood laminate flooring. Along with this other related products such as floor coverings of hard wood and vinyl also manufactured by them. Designing and manufacturing of both commercial and residential carpet products are carried on within the company's owned facilities. The raw material used for the carpet products are mainly tufted nylon yarn. For making carpet samples separate division are formed in the organization. The carpet sampling division provides service to its customers. By formulating samples of their own it becomes more cost-effective for the firm. For the distribution of finished products direct retail marketing is adopted by the company. This direct sales strategy helps them to get successful growth with higher market share than competitors. Adoption of new technology of continuous dying ranges act as competitive advantage for the company. Most of the production processes are carried on within the company's own plants. This makes the production process more cost effective. Characteristics such as innovation, leadership, product performance, quality, service, and value achieved by the company also act as competitive advantage for them in the carpet industry. ... Recycling of used products and scraps and wastes for further production is another strategy of Shaw flooring. When doing the recycling process quality control techniques are also implemented. Shaw's carpet recycled product, EcoWorx is the only one in that category which provides a guarantee of return back of carpet tile up at the end of its life. The wastage is utilized for producing energy and this provides them low cost energy for all of their process. Together with this environmentally better removal of wastage is also attained by them. These act as competitive advantages of the firm in the industry. (Shaw Industries). 3. Quality Management: For the implementation of quality control, Six Sigma total quality management system is adopted by the company. A certified Six Sigma Manager is appointed by the company and he is responsible for specifying improvement in the production efficiency of the manufacturing process by applying his Six Sigma skills and tools. He is required to issue reports to Plant Manager regarding the improvement process within the company's facilities. A Quality Assurance Manager is also appointed and he is responsible for the overall product quality within the company's manufacturing facility. He is also charged with discharging customers' claims and develops and implements quality improvement tools within the firm. He is required to report to the Plant Manager about the proper working of the production department. The Super wiser of the company is also charged with ensuring the quality and production standards within their shift. (Career Opportunities). 4. Process Design: Tufting process is used by the company for the production of carpets. The transformation process of carpet