Thursday, December 20, 2018
'Study of the Effect of Lead (Heavy Metal)\r'
'A major environmental concern due to dispersal of industrial and urban wastes gene scored by human activities is the taint of soil. Controlled and uncontrolled government of waste, accidental and bidding spillage, mining and smelting of met every(prenominal)iferous ores, sewage sludge applications programme to agricultural soils are responsible for the migration of contaminations into non-contaminated sites as dust or l from separately oneate and contribute towards pollution of our ecosystem. The present instruction was undertaken to study the marrow of fleshy metals on the process of Brasicca juncea and thereby its utilization for phytoremediation.\r\nThe negligible tot of pourboire (0 mg/gm) was imbed in jell enured in 0 % minginess of expire ethanoate rayon and maximum cadence of stretch out (0. 0011 mg/gm) was name in full treatment tough in (0. 6%) ducking of turn tail ethanoate. The pctage sprouting for control, 0. 2, 0. 4, 0. 6 percent asterisk ethanoate enured referenceling was 89%, 88%, 86. 66% and 83% respectively. The distance of jerk down was tack together much less in determine handle in 0. 6% assiduity of malarkey ethanoate (10 cm), as compared to the length of boom in set up handle with 0% compactness of run for acetate (8 cm).\r\n length of roots was lay down maximum in 0. 6% ingress of atomic number 82 acetate (2 cm), as compared to the length of shoot in fix enured with 0% assiduity of plump acetate (0. 5 cm). It was found that Brasica juncea die hardd highest assimilation of solemn metals and sack roll up lead. Key Words: leachate, glowering metals, lead, phytoremediation, Brasicca juncea. Introduction Heavy metal contamination of soil, piss and air has ca phthisisd serious environmental hazard in the biosphere due to quick industrialization and urbanization.\r\nLead is probably wizard of the close frequently encountered plodding metals in polluted environment. The primary sourc es of this metal include mining and smelting of met totallyiferous ores, burning of leaded gasoline, disposal of municipal sewage and industrial wastes enriched in lead as wellhead as utilize of lead-based paint (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 1984; Seaward and Richard-son 1990). comparatively high levels of lead ingresss were recorded as high as 7,000 ÃÂµg/ gm in roadside soil (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 1984) and 13,380 ÃÂµg/gm in mining dominion soil (Wick land 1990).\r\nIn novel years it has been reported that some plant species known as hyper accumulator derived from heavy metal-contaminated areas bring in the ability to accumulate signally high content of heavy metals without dramatically being impacted in their addition and development. (Reeves, Brooks and Malaises 1985; Baker and Brooks 1989). This raises the proposition that these hyper accumulators may provide the basis for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites (Baker et al. 1991). Phytoremediation p otential of a few much(prenominal) species for heavy metal-contaminated soil and water has recently been detected (Brown et al. 994; Kumar et al. 1995; Dushenkov et al. 1995; Huang et al. 1997; Blaylock et al. 1997).\r\nLead as a Heavy metal: Lead (Pb) exists by nature in many forms throughout the ball & vitamin A; has a soil holding time of 150-5000 yrs. Lead is among those heavy metals which have no known biological function. neer the less, numerous investigations betoken that plants can accumulate lead via root and shoot, and that the lead concentrations in plant tissues are significantly link to the lead levels in environment (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 1984; Nwosu et al. 995; Sawidis et al 1995; Xiong 1998).\r\nExcessive lead accumulated in plant tissue can be toxic to most plants, leading to lessening in seed sprouting, root annexe and biomass, inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis, as well as cell disturbance and chromosome lesion (Balsberg Pahlsson 1989; Kumar et al. 1991; Fargasova 1994; Xiong 1997c). In lead and other heavy metal-contaminated sites, the phytology structure and biodiversity are usually trim down barren patches of soil occurring, and trees are distributed or absent (Wickland 1990).\r\nMaterial and means Brasicca juncea seeds obtained from nursery were do by with lead acetate firmness of concentrations ranging from 0. 0%, 0. 2%, 0. 4% & 0. 6% for control the seed were soaked in distilled water. After 24 hrs the seeds were transferred on wet filter constitution (wet by the solutions of respective conc. ) in tractile trays. Seedlings were harvested by and by twenty days, the germination rate and the length of root and shoot was recorded. The amount of lead accumulated in the seedlings was too calculated.\r\nStock solution of 0. 2%, o. 4% and 0. % was nimble in the following behavior: 20 mg of lead acetate in 1000 ml distilled water in hoi polloitric flask gave 0. 2% of lead acetate solution. In the uniform w ay 40 mg & 60 mg lead acetate salt were dissolved to prepare 0. 4% & 0. 6%. stock solutions respectively. The deoxyribonucleic acid in control and the treated seedlings was estimated by Diphenylamine reaction. opthalmic density was infer at 595 nm on a photoelectrical colorimeter. Standard represent of O. D. on Y-axis and concentration of measurement desoxyribonucleic acid on X-axis was plotted. DNA from take in was estimated with the help of bill graph.\r\nThe Folin LowryÃ¢â¬â¢s method of protein assay was used for protein friendship in control and treated seedlings. Optical density was run down at 625 nm on photoelectric colorimeter. For the estimation of lead from the treated seedlings, 10 gm of the plant material was crushed in plaster and pestle in 40 ml distilled water and the solution was filtered. Another series was made by taking 10 ml sample solution from sink in of all concentrations from 0. 2%, 0. 4%, 0. 6% and control. 25 ml of freshly prepared Amm onium solution and 0. 5 ml of Sodium sulfide solution was added to all the above test tubes.\r\nSimilarly for standard graph, varying concentration (0. 25 Ã¢â¬ 1. 5ml) of works lead solution was prepared. To this 25 ml of freshly prepared Ammonium solution to make it alkaline was added; similarly 0. 5 ml of Sodium Sulfide was added. The volume of all solutions was equalized with distilled water. A blank was in addition prepared in the same manner without adding lead solution. Optical density was read at 430 nm on photoelectric colorimeter. The concentration of lead was calculated in terms of mg/litre from standard graph.\r\nResult & Discussion The tokenish amount of DNA (4. 50 mg/gm) was found in seedlings treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment, and maximum marginal amount of DNA (4. 675 mg/gm) found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment. The graph shows that the amount of DNA increases as the concentration of lead acetate goes on increasing. The minimum amount of Protein (86 mg/gm) was found in plant treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment, and maximum amount Protein (93. 5 mg/gm) found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment 89. mg and 91. 5mg of protein was estimated in the seedlings treated with 0. 4% and 0. 6% lead acetate.\r\nFrom the graph it can be cerebrate that the amount of protein increased with the increase in the concentration of lead. The graphical representation was do for calculating the concentration of lead in the treated seedlings. The optical density was read at 430 nm for control, 0. 2%, 0. 4% and 0. 6% lead acetate treated seedlings was 0, 0. 013, 0. 016 and 0. 019 respectively. The graph plotted resulted into a tasteful line, indicating the increased accumulation of lead in the seedlings.\r\nThe concentration of lead was calculated using graph. In 1gm of control, 0. 2, 0. 4 and 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling sample had 0 mg, 0. 00078 mg, 0. 00094 mg and 0. 0011 mg of lead respectively. The minimum amount of lead (0 mg/gm) was found in plant treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate and maximum amount of lead (0. 0011 mg/gm) was found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate. This suggests that Brasicca juncea could accumulate comparatively high doses lead.\r\nThe per centum germination for 1 gm each of control, 0. 2, 0. 4, 0. percent lead acetate treated seedling was 89%, 88%, 86. 66% and 83% respectively. The germination with increase in concentration of lead acetate did not show any inhibitory effect on the germination of seeds but a looker decrease in the percentage of germination was observed. Maximum percentage of germination was found in control seeds. Out of ccc seeds soaked in 0. 2%, 0. 4% and 0. 6% solution of lead acetate showed 264, 260 and 249 seeds germinating respectively. When compared to the cont rol the germination percentage of the treated seeds did not differ much.\r\nThis indicated the capability of Brasicca juncea in tolerating the presence of heavy metals like lead. The shoot length for 1 gm each of control, 0. 2, 0. 4 and 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 8 cm, 8. 5 cm, 8. 3cm, and 10 cm respectively; also the root length for 1 gm each of control, 0. 2, 0. 4 and 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 0. 5 cm, 0. 8 cm, 1. 0 cm and 2. 0 cm respectively. The length of shoot was found maximum in plant treated in 0. 6% concentration of lead acetate (10 cm), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (8 cm).\r\nLength of roots was found maximum in 0. 6% concentration of lead acetate (2 cm), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (0. 5 cm). This indicates that Brasicca juncea was equal to utilize the increased amount of lead to its advantage, suggesting the use of Brasicca juncea as a innate substitute(a) for phytoremediation. Conclusion The present study indicates that plant species like Brasicca juncea can tolerate wide range of heavy metals concentration, it utilizes the heavy concentration for its all round growth .\r\nIt can be used in removal of lead; and hence its use in phytoremediation in future. Phytoremediation is a unfluctuating evolution field, since last ten years lot of field application were initiated all over the world, it includes Phytoremediation of native, Inorganic and Radio nuclides. This sustainable and inexpensive process is fast acclivitous as a viable alternative to conventional remediation methods and will be most suitable for a developing country like India. Most of the studies have been done in developed countries and noesis of suitable plants is particularly limited in India.\r\nIn India commercial application of Phytoremediation of reproach heavy metal or Organic compounds is in its earliest phas e. Fast increment plants with high biomass and good metal intake ability are accepted. In most of the contaminated sites hardy, tolerant, weed species exist and phytoremediation through these and other non-edible species can restrict the contaminant from being introduced into the food web. Further studies need to be performed in order to fix the maximum amount of lead that the plants may tolerate, and the ability of Brasicca juncea to germinate and grow in media containing mixtures of heavy metals.\r\n'