Saturday, March 16, 2019
Affirmative Action and Discrimination :: Free Essays Online
Affirmative Action and Discrimination1. Race relations in general and favorable carry through in particular have arguably been the most divisive and hotly contested issues in contemporary American politics. Many people feel that affirmative action is necessary to every counteract injustices or ensure the advancement of certain minorities. Affirmative action proponents generally point to four justifications. These are racism, poverty, diversity, and the problem of underrepresentation. Proponents point bulge that many blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans live in substandard housing, go to substandard schools, and live in neighborhoods where crime is rampant. They claim that they are victims of daily racism and that this hurts their chances for advancement. Proponents point to small numbers of these minorities in certain desirable jobs (i.e. CEOs of corporations and extravagantly elected office) as evidence of underrepresentation of minorities and a need for diversity both(pre nominal) in the workplace and in higher education. 2. There are some(prenominal) different levels of affirmative action. They include quotas, preferences, and outreach, in lessening order of severity. Quotas, in like manner called set asides, deal with having a certain amount of jobs or college muscae volitantes reserved for a particular group. For example, if a University admits 1000 savants every course of study and sets aside 150 seats that are open to blacks only, this is an example of a quota. In the Supreme Court case Bakke v Regents of the University of California , the hail ruled that these quotas could not be used by the system further that race could be considered a plus in admissions to the medical school. This brings us to preferences. Preferences are when persons from certain groups (usually groups that have been underrepresented or disadvantaged) are given a boost in admissions. An example of this would be the practice at the University of Michigan, which was r ecently overruled by a U.S. District Court. At the University of Michigan, applicants are graded on a 150-point scale. Blacks, Hispanics and American Indians get 20 points for their race, equal to raising their grade-point average a full point on a 4 -point scale (Focus on Affirmative). This case has recently been appealed to the Supreme Court, casing new stir up on this decades old question. The third and least severe form of affirmative action occurs when no preferences are given, but when special efforts are make to recruit members of certain groups. This is called outreach. An example of this would be when a Hispanic student receives a letter from the minority recruitment office at a prestigious university urging him to apply (Ezorsky, 34).