Sunday, March 10, 2019

Wgu Hat Task 3

environmental and spheric Health EEEee familiarity Health Nursing EE Community Health Nursing environmental and spheric Health-? HAT undertaking 3 Lynn Senfelds Western G everywherenors University Environmental and Global Health Task A-? 1 The Communicable Disease Outbreak of avian Influenza 2 Communicable diseases account for approximately 1/4th of worldwide mortality, lend to more than than 15 million deaths each year (Kierny, Exclor, and Girard, 2004). there ingest been three pandemics of avian Influenza in the last century-? 1918, 1957, and 1968. thither demand been worldwide outbreaks of Avian Influenza among poultry over the years. It is ot tardily passed from birds to sympathetics. The first base outbreak of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in sympathetics was in Hong Kong in 1997. In March through May of 1997, a occur off of poultry was traceed, due to a highly virulent disease. search revealed it was from Avian Influenza (H5N1). In May, a three-? year-? old boy died o f complications from H5N1. In early December, three more deaths occurred as a result of Avian Influenza spoilion, come ons 60, 54 and 13. Five more cases involving varying advances were confirmed by mid December. A two and three year old were cousins to a quint year old who became ill. There were 18 confirmed cases and deaths link to the H5N1 strain of grippe by the end of the year. The age range was unriv eached to sixty. The infection was acquired by humans directly from chickens. According to Butcher and Miles (2004), on December 28, 1997, the Hong Kong Department of Agriculture Fisheries ordered a slaughter of all in all chickens for a total of 1. 3 million chickens. Exports from Mainland China were halted temporarily. A2-? The Epidemiological Indicators Associated with Avian Influenza Since the China outbreak of avian grippe H5N1, the computer virus has sour endemic in Asia, and has caused outbreaks in Europe and Africa. Despite detailed study, ittle is cognise about the epidemiology of the virus. The frequencies of human infection Environmental and Global Health yield non been determined, and we urgently need seroprevalence studies. The expanding geographic outbreaks in Russia, Mongolia and Kazakhstan indicate that more human populations are at try (Avian Influenza, 2005). The fatality rate in China in 1997 was higher in concourse over age 13. The case fatality rate was 44%. There was a 57% mortality rate in the uncomplainings over age 13 and all of those had 3 severe clinical disease. Patients younger than age volt had barmy symptoms with one death from complications from ReyesSyndrome. Of the seven patients over age 18, six died (88% mortality). sevener of the 18 cases had direct or indirect linkup with poultry (Butcher & Miles, 2004). There are vaccinations for H1N1 and H3N2. Human trails for H5N1 are in progress. Qualitative indicators include knowingness of available immunizations, early manipulation with antivirals and prevent ion. Prevention includes chemical agents and physical environments much(prenominal) as soaps, alcohol and chlorination. Influenza A virus is readily inactivated by a variety of agents. Secondary prevention is available for those who charter been exposed. The world Health Organization has a reserve mount of oseltamivir for a realizable pandemic, which is an effective antiviral to extinguish or delay the spread of the virus. There are safe, inactive immunogenic vaccinations that birth been developed (Avian Influenza, 2005). Awareness and availability ordain impact the incidence of an outbreak. The China outbreak was not well understand therefore, preventative measures were not yet in place. Many were exposed and infected but were not developing clinical disease, and only seven of the 18 cases had direct or indirect contact with poultry. Universal precautions and practicing good hygiene is the beat way to prevent the spread of nfluenza. Hand Environmental and Global Health was hing for 15-? 20 seconds, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and avoiding touching the mouth, eyes and nose will be effective in 4 controlling the spread of the virus. get toibility to wellness assistance, wellness care facilities, and education will affect future outbreaks. Access to services, the percent of throng who receive coverage and quality of service as defined by those that follow standard guidelines will be the best definers of qualitative indicators. Services must be equally distributed and compliance should be monitored. A3-? Analyze the EpidemiologicalData The Hong Kong outbreak of avian influenza resulted in 18 human cases and eight deaths. This represents a 44% case fatality rate. According to the orb Health Organization (April, 2011), there has been a widespread reemergence in 2003 and 2004 and the virus has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa. This has resulted in millions of poultry infections and several hundred human cases with a high ca se fatality rate. This is consistent with the Hong Kong outbreak. Ongoing H5N1 viral infections in poultry continue to pose a threat to creation health. They have the dominance to change into a form that is more easily transmissible mong humans. Outbreaks of avian influenza raise global health concerns. This is associate to the viruss potential to cause serious illness in quite a little and its pandemic capacity. The find factors associated with the Hong Kong outbreak were those who had direct or indirect contact with infected live or inanimate poultry. A contaminated environment was also a consideration. Possible human-? to-? human transmittance was indicated because a two and three year old were cousins to a five year old who became sick. vitamin C% of the patients over age 13 had severe clinical disease with a Environmental and Global Health 57% mortality rate (Butcher &Miles, 2004). Many more passel were exposed and 5 infected but did not develop clinical disease. The d ata indicates that those at risk for contracting the virus and sustaining disease were people with comorbidity and those with an already compromised immune system. A4-? Route of Transmission Avian influenza is a viral infectious disease of birds. Most of these do not infect humans. Influenza viruses are believed to cycle from birds to swine accordingly swine to humans. The H5N1 strain of the virus has infected humans. Direct avian to human transmission is the major means of infection. The subscribe to mode and sites of viral acquisition into he respiratory tract are not fully understood. Handling of infected live or dead poultry during the week before the onset of symptoms appears to be the greatest risk factor. Most patients acquire the virus from raising poultry inside of orthogonal of their homes. Consuming raw or undercooked pathological poultry, handling or preparing diseased poultry and playing with sick poultry have all been indicated as potential risk factors (Avian infl uenza, 2005). Some possible transmission routes include contact with virus-? contaminated fomites or with fertilizer that contains poultry feces. The respiratory tract is then self-? inoculated or nhalation of airborne excreta may occur. Human-? to-? human transmission be unclear, however, respiratory secretions and all other bodily fluids should be considered potentially infectious. Environmental and Global Health A5-? Graphic Representation of Outbreak 6 H5N1 infects orthogonal exchange student while visiting a China family grow 100% infection of poultry , 18 human infections Students mother has leadled to Africa for a humanitarian visit after contact with daughter 100 cases in Africa Student flys home and has a two hour lay-? over in Chicago, then arrives home in Madison. 10 cases in Chicago, 5 cases in MadisonWithin 9-? 10 age of contact with student, there is a 61% fatality rate of those between ages 10-? 19. Student goes back to university classes. Within 7 days student de velops a fever & difficulty breathing Environmental and Global Health A6-? How the Outbreak Could Affect my Community The H5N1 virus does not currently spread from human to human efficiently. The fact that all influenza viruses have the ability to change leads health care 7 professionals to be prepared for a potential pandemic. There is little to no opposition against the virus because humans are not usually infected. If there were an outbreak in my union, steltamivir for people one year and older and zanamivir for people five years and older are two antiviral medications that may be effective treatment options. According to the CDC (2012), prophylaxis with these medications should be started within 2 days of known contact/exposure to a suspect case for a period of seven days. The community would need to assess high-? risk groups. High-? risk exposure groups are household members or close family members. Health care personnel who have contact within six feet of an infected patient are at moderate risk. The use of approved personal tutelar equipment will decrease risk of nfection. There are many people in the population at risk for complications that would need to be screened diabetics, asthmatics, people with heart conditions, adults ages 65 and older, pregnant women and children under age two to frame a few. Current knowledge in global health initiatives in order to protect our communities from contractable diseases is necessary. 60% of 600 human cases from 15 countries have died from H5N1 infection (CDC, 2012). This high mortality rate indicates a need for health care professionals to stay alert to early signs of potential infection much(prenominal) as fever and difficulty breathing. Screening questions uch as recent travel is a key factor in early detection. Protecting the unprotected Environmental and Global Health populations, education and early diagnosis and treatment are also key factors to prevent the spread of avian influenza in any community. B-? Community Health Nurse/SARS The community health nurse has a responsibility to be aware of communicable disease trends regarding incidence, prevalence and mortality in their areas due to 8 the potential for spread of disease worldwide. Health care providers are required to report cases of SARS to the state or local health department. Some communities have infection control

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