Monday, April 1, 2019
Theories of Knowing
Theories of KnowingGEOG 701 Research in Practice, 2017Ways of Knowing ComparisonName Allan RaraiWhich way of sharp from hebdomad 2 do you select?PositivismStructuralismWhich way of penetrating from Week 3 do you select?Social constructionismHumanismWhat be the typical features of question that uses the slipway of keen that you withdraw selected?PositivismIt stomach be said that the philosophy of logical positivism dominates Science. Positivism believes in empiricism, where experiments such(prenominal) as manifestations and measurements argon the core of scientific experiments, using theories to predict reality, which blaspheme on quantitative selective information. Positivists believe that positive cognition is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. For example, the properties of weather (humidity, air temperature and pressure, wind speed and direction) and how these properties are related (seasonal rainfall amount). Further more, there is a belief in the philosophy of positivism that the incorporation of new ideas may contradict old ideas, thus ideas persist to accumulate, allowing for knowledge to expand. Also, outcomes are separate or dissociated from in-person and social status, and personal emotion is ignored.Social ConstructionismThe typical features of research that use these ways of knowing in Social Constructionism include the following this way of knowing focuses more on social collectives or groups rather than on individualism, that is, the groups or communities are constructed based on their norms what they are reinforced on such as rules and ways of living, which pinpoint them within society thus making them what they are. For example, how responsibilities are distributed and channels of communication are constructed, where power or authority is coordinate how traditions and cultures are constructed. This researched philosophy also reveals what has been constructed such as meanings being commit and followed. Moreover, once knowledge has been constructed and used, it may be become resistant to change.What do you see as being the benefits associated with each of the ways of knowing that you have selected?PositivismThe benefits of positivism include knowledge building, that is, new ideas are built or continue to emerge from past knowledge errors or gaps. Also, results or outcomes are easily understood, visualised and compared to others. It does not involve perceptions, because it uses quantitative information to provide information that researchers use to make scientific assumptions. That is wherefore it follows a well-defined structure during study and discussion.Social ConstructionismThe benefits associated with Social Constructionism are as follows they reveal assumptions behind common sense, explain prevailing attitudes, and there is an reason of key institutions and social transformation over time. For example, norms, values and rules constructed within various tiers of a society are transformed over a menstruation of time and this way of knowing is well vested accordingly. Furthermore, it allows people to challenge assumptions and norms, and promotes knowledge sharing.What do you see as being the limitations associated with each of the ways of knowing that you have selected?PositivismThere are many limitations to this way of knowing. It focuses on the How rather than the Why questions. It does not investigate further as to wherefore things are happening because it relies more on data, thus, is inflexible. It does not measures things that are not visible. Moreover, it assumes that scientific results are correct and emotions and perceptions are disregarded from interferences and conclusions.Social Constructionism limit of social constructionism is that, constructs change over time and can be misunderstood. This depends exclusively on how society is constructed within its settings. Also, it ignores individual contexts and it can be exhausting to apply th is kind of knowledge in a new environment. Moreover, it does not need to be true, it invites relativism. This type of knowing requires more time (time consuming) and is high-ticket(prenominal) (requires funding).In a hypothetical scenario, you are asked to conduct research in/on a timber (the research can be on anything, but must involve data collection related to a forest location). Propose two separate research questions-one for each of the ways of knowing you have selected-that incorporate data gathering opportunities in a hypothetical forest location, and provide a justification about why the research questions reflect your chosen ways of knowing.PositivismWhat is the Relationship mingled with Forest Harvesting (Clearing of Forest) and sedimentation accumulation on Big bespeak River on Santo Island in Vanuatu? This research question reflects this way of knowing because it requires observation and measurement of data to test the hypothesis that harvesting of a forest may have some impact on the sediment in the rivers. It will be easy to compare the results based on the analysed data (number of hectares (ha) of forest cleared amount of sediment accumulation) that has been collected.Social ConstructionismRestoration of immanent Ecosystem to preserve and increase number of native plants and animals. (Research question Will restoring inherent Forest (NF) helps to increase the number of native species within the forest ecosystem?)This research question reflects this particular way of knowing because it focuses on more cooperative ways of knowledge. It is common sense to assume that if a forests ecosystem is restored, native plants and animals may increase. It looks like it is interconnected with the Positivism way of knowing. This type of research requires a lot of funding and may involve different groups/ stakeholders within the context of a society.